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 Europe

Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. It comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.


Since around 1850, Europe is most commonly considered as separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Though the term "continent" implies physical geography defines it, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has moved since its first conception in classical antiquity. The division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural, linguistic, and ethnic differences, some of which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Russia being transcontinental countries.


Europe covers about 10,180,000 square kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi), or 2% of the Earth's surface (6.8% of land area). Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million (about 11% of world population) as of 2016. The European climate is largely affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent, even at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast.


Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization. The fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the migration period, marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of an era known as the Middle Ages. Renaissance Humanism, exploration, art, and science led to the modern era. From the Age of Discovery onwards, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and the majority of Asia.


The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French revolution and the Napoleonic wars shaped the continent culturally, politically, and economically from the end of the 17th century till the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic, cultural, and social change in Western Europe, and eventually the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall.


In 1955, the Council of Europe was formed in Strasbourg following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals. It includes all states except for Belarus, Kazakhstan and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation. The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most commonly used among Europeans; and the EU's Schengen Area abolishes border and immigration controls among most of its member states. The European Anthem is "Ode to Joy" and states celebrate peace and unity on Europe Day.

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Europe
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updated Sat. May 5, 2018

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“I've been told that on your first trip to Europe ... you should expect not to make money, on your second trip expect to maybe break even, and on your third trip you might make money,” she said. “I'm lucky enough to have one of those jobs that means I don't have to stay in one place … If I really enjoy it, ...
Europe already has two of the world's largest robotics companies, ABB Ltd. of Switzerland and Germany's Kuka AG. Yet it has no vast internet platforms on the scale of Google Inc. or China's Tencent Holdings Ltd. to hoover up the data that underlie many current technological advances in AI. Worse, those ...

NATO has deployed multinational units to Eastern Europe, and the US Army has been looking to boost its armor for more rotational deployments. Armored units on the continent are also expanding their training repertoire. Soldiers from the 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, from the 1st Infantry Division, ...
BRUSSELS — On his first full day as secretary of state, Mike Pompeo traveled to Europe and delivered a warning that leaders here have come to dread: President Trump will soon pull out of the Iran nuclear deal unless major changes are made. “Absent a substantial fix, absent overcoming the shortcomings ...
Roundup Here's your roundup of machine-learning news from this week, beyond what we've already covered. Axon AI Ethics board A group of civil rights groups and technology researchers has written a letter to Axon, a company that uses AI to analyze video footage aimed at law enforcement.
There is no reason why the European Union should suffer from a trade war between the United States and China, France's finance minister said Saturday, with Europe pushing for full exemption from new U.S. tariffs set to take effect next week. In March, the U.S. slapped tariffs against steel and aluminum ...

"The problem is the lack of leadership ... we have just tacticians in Europe ... nobody wants to assume responsibility. As a result, [Russian President Vladimir] Putin was playing them around. "It's not about Putin being so strong, it's about these kind of leaders being so weak. "There is no leadership in Europe ...
Following a period of relatively warm and pleasant weather, a storm will swing from western Europe and into the North Sea through Monday. Rounds of rain will inundate northern Portugal and northwestern Spain, while showers and thunderstorms sweep across northeastern Spain and southern France ...
European Council President Donald Tusk has praised Macedonia's efforts to reconcile with its neighbors as it accelerates its bid to join the European Union, saying such efforts are needed across the Western Balkans and are "important" for Europe. Speaking at a regional summit in Skopje on April 27, Tusk ...
The European Commission decided on Friday (27 April) to impose a complete ban on neonicotinoids, after managing to achieve the necessary qualified majority among EU member states. EURACTIV.com has learned that 18 member states, which include all the big countries such as France, Germany, ...
BRUSSELS (AP) — Police in Europe and North America have seized servers and data from Islamic State propaganda outlets in a multi-country operation aimed at tracking down radicals and crimping the group's ability to spread its violent message. European agency Europol announced Friday that the ...
Spain, Croatia, Italy, Germany and the U.K. are just some of the European countries with regions that are challenging their nationhood and autonomy. But why? CNBC's Tom Chitty finds out. Watch CNBC Live TV. You May Like. ‹ › Latest Video. ‹ 04:16. 04:16 | 1 Hr Ago. Online advertising sales growth helps drive Amazon ...
It's the European Year of Cultural Heritage, an ongoing celebration across multiple countries that includes museum exhibitions; tours of gardens and monuments; theater, dance and musical performances; and the reappearance of many long-running annual festivals. Each event is meant to speak to the ...
PARIS – Police around Europe and North America have seized servers and data from Islamic State propaganda outlets in a multi-country operation aimed at tracking down radicals and crimping the group's ability to spread its violent message. The two-day operation was the culmination of efforts started in ...
The vice president of the European Commission recently urged EU countries to be politically and financially supportive of developing Blockchain tech because “Europe is best positioned to play a leading role.” The Commission proposed a 23-point action plan to integrate the development of Blockchain ...
Northern Ireland sells more in the British market than we do in the Republic of Ireland, the rest of Europe and the rest of the world put together. Great Britain is also the region from which we draw our greatest number of imports. There will be no internal barriers created within the UK post-Brexit and no ...
WhatsApp, the popular messaging service owned by Facebook Inc, is raising its minimum age from 13 to 16 in Europe to help it comply with new data privacy rules coming into force next month. WhatsApp will ask European users to confirm they are at least 16 years old when they are prompted to agree ...

This week, the leaders of Europe are lined up to work their wicked wiles on Donald Trump, at a time when there are major disagreements on climate policy, trade, and — above all, at the moment — how to handle the Iran nuclear deal. We get to watch and observe the latest strategy from the Continent — a ...
Emmanuel Macron has likened the political divisions in Europe to a civil war and warned against growing illiberalism on the continent. In his first speech to the European parliament, the French president called for the defence of a European liberal democracy that offered protection of the rights of its ...
But the significance of this move is global – and it concerns Europe in many ways. China has identified a “window of historic opportunity” for itself across the world. To make the best of this, so its logic goes, the country must be united and disciplined under a strong leader and supreme commander. Xi has ...
The pan-European STOXX 600 was up 0.6 percent in afternoon trade, with almost all sectors trading in positive territory. Major bourses posted strong gains, with Germany's DAX up more than 1 percent. Markets in Europe also received support from a positive start to Wall Street's session, where the Dow ...
Facebook is bringing its facial recognition technology back to Europe, despite agreeing with regulators to drop the feature nearly six years ago. On Tuesday, the social network outlined a number of measures it would be rolling out to comply with a strict new data law in the European Union known as the ...
European stocks were mixed on Wednesday, as investors monitored a fresh batch of corporate earnings and economic data. The pan-European Stoxx 600 hovered close to the flatline during mid-morning deals, with sectors and major bourses pointing in opposite directions.
BRUSSELS — Emmanuel Macron, who beat back the far-right National Front to win the French presidency, said on Tuesday that there was “an increasing fascination with illiberalism” in Europe and that divisions over values within the European Union were like “a European civil war.” Speaking after the ...
[LONDON] Europe's main stock markets rose at the start of trading on Wednesday following solid gains across Asia and on Wall Street. London's benchmark FTSE 100 index climbed 0.2 per cent to 7,243.37 points compared with Tuesday's close. In the eurozone, Frankfurt's DAX 30 won 0.1 per cent to 12,597.58 points and ...
Though it has only been in place for three months, MiFID II, Europe's new regulatory market regime, appears to be changing how European investors trade exchange-traded products (ETPs). New trade reporting data collected by Cboe Europe and distributed to clients suggest investors are moving from ...
Europe is a massive continent that is home to millions of people that live in the various countries that make up Europe. In total there are 50 countries in Europe including some countries that are also in Asia, as well as few countries that have no international recognition. Check out this guide to learn about all ...
Europe is right to be wary of China's growing economic footprint on the Continent. Beijing's attempts to nudge European policy in a direction that serves its strategic interest — and its selective interpretation of EU regulation — are issues that deserve long-term attention from policymakers. But while China is ...
Donald Trump's disregard for liberal democratic values harms the institutional pillars of the world order that the US itself long championed. Only if the world's other liberal democracies co-operate can the international community hold on until more responsible US leadership returns, says Chris Patten.
AstraZeneca PLC (AZN.LN) said Tuesday that regulators in Europe and the U.S. have accepted applications for cancer treatments Lynparza and Moxetumomab Pasudotox. In the U.S., the Food and Drug Administration has accepted the biologics license application for Moxetumomab Pasudotox, the ...
Author of "A Shattered Peace: Versailles 1919 and the Price We Pay Today," he formerly was a foreign correspondent for The New York Times and CBS News in Asia and Europe where he served as Paris correspondent. Follow him on Twitter @DavidAndelman. The views expressed in this commentary are ...
Half of all the flights in Europe face delays after a computer failure to the system that regulates flight plans. A total of 29,500 flights were expected today with almost half of them being slowed by the outage in the Enhanced Tactical Flow Management System at the Eurocontrol centre in Brussels.
“Go with the flow” could be the motto of river cruisers, the fastest growing segment of the cruise market. Unlike oceangoing ships that carry as many as 5,000 passengers, most river cruise ships accommodate around 150 guests, for a more intimate experience. Balconies, floor-to-ceiling windows, and ...
Labor trafficking and exploitation is on the rise in Europe, according to a new report by the Council of Europe published Tuesday. The number of identified victims of labor trafficking has increased in every European country monitored twice by the Strasbourg-based human rights body, according to the report ...
The recent Italian elections are a greater setback for Europe than Brexit. The British, after all, have always been Euroskeptic. The United Kingdom joined the then-European Economic Community late and reluctantly, and for most of the last 45 years the majority of Brits did not see the European Union as ...
'You can very easily underestimate Europe but you should look under the scaffolding. You save money for 3 years to go to Europe and then you get to Notre Dame or the Duomo in Milan or the cathedral in Colon and then it's covered with the scaffolding you know! but then you come back 3 years later and ...
The orange snow was first seen falling from the sky throughout Eastern Europe in late March. Since then, the phenomenon has drawn comparisons to Martian-like landscapes across social media. But, as Lydia Smith of The Independent reports, there's a perfectly normal explanation for the orange-tinged ...
STUTTGART, Germany — A U.S.-based air defense artillery brigade has formally begun its mission in Germany, marking the first deployment of such a unit to Europe since the post-Cold War drawdown. The arrival of the National Guard's South Carolina-based 678th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, billed as ...
Dutch car media outlet AutoRAI reports that Lexus is no longer taking orders for the GS sport sedan in Europe and production of European models will cease this month. The GS has been around in its current form since the 2013 model year and is allegedly on the chopping block due to a decline in ...
Days before the changes were to be implemented, the Council of Europe's Group of States Against Corruption (GRECO) released a 15-page report strongly criticizing the plans. The report calls the changes — which target Poland's National Council of the Judiciary, the Supreme Court and laws governing ...
As Europe was hit by a series of terror attacks — from Paris to Brussels, from Nice to Berlin — the profile of the EU agency increased and so did the amount of information on terrorism that national governments fed into its databases. However, the same progress has not been made in the fight against ...
Many of the Eritreans go through Sudan and Libya en route to Europe. From Libya, they may pay human smugglers to take them across the sea by boat. Eritreans also sometimes go through Egypt to Europe. According to the non-profit organization the Borgen Project, Eritreans make up the third largest ...
Angela Merkel finally took charge as Germany's Chancellor last week after months of political negotiations. It took six months of fraught coalition building following last September's federal elections to bring her back in her fourth term as chancellor though with a diminished majority. There are a lot of ...
We last wrote about the Lexus GS one year ago to editorialize about the rumored death of the luxury brand's sports sedan. Now, Dutch outlet AutoRAI claims to have gotten confirmation from Lexus Europe that the automaker stopped taking orders for the GS in March, and will cease production of the ...
Italian Interior Minister Marco Minniti has claimed that about 25.000 to 30.000 foreigners of ISIS militants are preparing to infiltrate to Europe on migrants boats via Libya-Italy route. In a press statement on Thursday, Minniti warned that up to 30,000 ISIS militants are on the run after their defeats in Syria and ...
We have a responsibility to protect your information,” Mark Zuckerberg, the chief executive of Facebook, declared recently in a full-page newspaper advertisement. “If we can't, we don't deserve it.” It is nice to see Facebook taking some responsibility for the exploitation of the personal information of 50 ...
The number of visitors from Western Europe increased by almost 30 per cent. “Yes, Georgia is a relatively new travel destination for western European tourists,” says Rusudan Mamatsashvili, the impressive young deputy head of the Georgian National Tourism Association (GNTA). “We are focusing on this ...
Europe's biggest gas field--Groningen in the north of the Netherlands--has been pumping gas for more than half a century and supplies gas to 98 percent of the Dutch population. But the field has been causing earthquakes that have become a growing concern for residents and authorities. After years of ...
German migrants With the rife security issues experienced across Europe due to mass Muslim migration, a poll conducted across all 28 nations in the European Union (EU) revealed that 78 percent of EU citizens see the influx as a problem and desire tighter control of Europe's external borders. Most of the ...
But a vast breeding and relocation program has now turned the lynx into a flagship example of Europe's efforts to maintain its biodiversity. The program, mostly financed by the European Union, was begun after the Iberian lynx became the world's most endangered feline, based on a 2002 census that ...


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  Internet Medievil Sourcebook [Fordham University]

 

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