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 George Frost Kennan

George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 - March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.

In the late 1940s, his writings inspired the Truman Doctrine and the U.S. foreign policy of "containing" the Soviet Union, thrusting him into a lifelong role as a leading authority on the Cold War. His "Long Telegram" from Moscow in 1946, and the subsequent 1947 article "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" argued that the Soviet regime was inherently expansionist and that its influence had to be "contained" in areas of vital strategic importance to the United States. These texts quickly emerged as foundational texts of the Cold War, expressing the Truman administration\'s new anti-Soviet Union policy. Kennan also played a leading role in the development of definitive Cold War programs and institutions, most notably the Marshall Plan.

Shortly after Kennan\'s doctrines had been enshrined as official U.S. policy, he began to criticize the policies that he had seemingly helped launch. By mid-1948, he was convinced that the situation in Western Europe had improved to the point where negotiations could be initiated with Moscow. The suggestion did not resonate within the Truman administration, and Kennan\'s influence was increasingly marginalized用articularly after Dean Acheson was appointed Secretary of State in 1949. As U.S. Cold War strategy assumed a more aggressive and militaristic tone, Kennan bemoaned what he called a misinterpretation of his thinking.

In 1950, Kennan left the Department of State, except for two brief ambassadorial stints in Moscow and Yugoslavia, and became a leading realist critic of U.S. foreign policy. He continued to be a leading thinker in international affairs as a faculty member of the Institute for Advanced Study from 1956 until his death at age 101 in March 2005.

George F. Kennan
George F. Kennan
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The veteran US diplomat and Soviet expert George Kennan had written in 1997 that "expanding NATO would be the most fateful error of American policy in the entire post-Cold War era" and that such a decision might be expected "to restore the atmosphere of the Cold war to East-West relations".

-For Russia, he believes in 'a policy of containment' of its foreign policy ambitions as advocated by George Kennan, the strategic US geopolitical planner who shaped modern US foreign policy. -Unlike President Trump, Secretary Tillerson supports the Iranian Deal because, according to him, America'sテδづつ...
A Requiem for Vietnam. Forty-three years ago a symposium of writers from George Kennan to Gore Vidal surveyed the damage--and offered prescient warnings for our wars today. By Andrew J. Bacevich • February 7, 2018テδづつ...
Given the likely costs and risks of conventional and nuclear war with China, Russia, Iran, and North Korea, much of the competition will likely be unconventional--and include what former U.S. state Department diplomat George Kennan referred to as "political warfare." The term political warfare refers to theテδづつ...
One of America's great diplomats was the late George Kennan. The U.S. Foreign Service author of the 'Long Telegram' from Moscow coined - and mostly even defined - the iconic policy of "containment" as the needed antidote to the poison of the former Soviet Union. And though Ambassador Kennan'sテδづつ...

When she landed in New York in April 1967, she was greeted by George Kennan, the former U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. Kennan was a complicated man. He was considered a brilliant thinker, one of the architects of the Cold War, but he longed for a time when pioneers made a living off the land,テδづつ...
Celebrated Cold War strategist, George Kennan, had termed the possible NATO expansion eastwards a 'tragic mistake'.[ii] Kennan knew the Baltics first hand as his distinguished diplomat career was launched in Riga, Latvia, then a key US 'listening post' for Soviet Union affairs. Kennan never questionedテδづつ...
Throughout our history, even advocates of realpolitik--a foreign policy built strictly on the pursuit of vital interests and a balance of power--have acknowledged that, in the competition for influence, America gains an advantage from the appeal of its ideals. George Kennan, the architect of our Cold Warテδづつ...
Our cover model, Henry Johnson, started collecting WW1 paraphernalia when he was 15. He now owns well over a dozen types of firearms that were used by the U.S. during the war, and the entirety of the gear issued to U.S. soldiers before and during the war including accoutrements, uniforms, munitions,テδづつ...
The diplomat George Kennan's private diaries revealed him to be a bigot, but his nasty opinion of foreigners (he described an Italian he met as a "typical dago ... talkative in a weak, ignorant, furtive, sneering way," and called Iraqis "a population unhygienic in its habits") came out only after his death.
HELP UNWANTED Bonobos, such as this adult male housed at an African sanctuary, prefer individuals who hinder others over those that help, a new study finds. In contrast, humans typically favor helpers over hinderers, starting in infancy. C. Krupenye. email. Email. Print. Print. twitter. Twitter. facebook.
During this period, U.S. foreign policy was guided by the intellect of George F. Kennan and a group of colleagues know as "The Wise Men. ... ignorance, told the author that he did not need any new grand strategy; "I don't really even need George Kennan right now"- but, rather the right strategic partners.
HAPPY OLD YEAR: Half a century ago, in the winter after the Summer of Love, American reading habits were as turbulent as the culture at large. William Styron's novel of slave rebellion, "The Confessions of Nat Turner," ruled the fiction best-seller list of Dec. 31, 1967, where it was joined by titles as variedテδづつ...
In his Middle East-centric history, The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, author Peter Frankopan cites observations made in 1946 by George Kennan, then U.S. charge d'affairs at the U.S. embassy in Moscow, which are shockingly revealing of the intent behind Russia's efforts to undermine the 2016テδづつ...
The American diplomat and historian George F. Kennan is most remembered for authoring the "Long Telegram" from Moscow in February 1946, which examined the historical and ideological bases of Soviet foreign policy. It is one of the seminal documents of the early Cold War years, and it helped shapeテδづつ...
In his own way, Trump may be fulfilling the long held ambition of George Kennan on the world order. And while the transition is risky, it may ultimately be for the best. To see why, we need to realise just how different US policy is today compared with the vision of the man credited with its post-war creation.

And that means looking to its founder, George F. Kennan. In the late 1940s, as U.S.-Soviet confrontation heated up, Kennan -- who served as deputy to the U.S. ambassador in Moscow, and later as ambassador himself -- offered a comprehensive plan for managing that rivalry in two famous papers: a 1946テδづつ...
The enduring irony of George F. Kennan's life was just how much the architect of America's Cold War "containment" strategy--aimed at stopping Soviet expansionism--loved Russia. Kennan arguably played a larger role in shaping the U.S.'s view of a major foreign power, and thus our relations with thatテδづつ...
George Kennan's Geopolitics of the Far East ... The American diplomat and historian George F. Kennan is mostly known for writing the "Long Telegram" from Moscow in February 1946 that warned of the growing Soviet threat to the West, and "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" in 1947 in Foreign Affairs, whichテδづつ...
The one puzzle in John Lewis Gaddis's first-rate biography of the diplomat George Kennan, which Gaddis began in 1982, when his subject was seventy-eight, and waited nearly thirty years to complete, since Kennan lived to be a hundred and one, is the subtitle. The book is called "George F. Kennan: Anテδづつ...
Perhaps we need to recall the wisdom of George F. Kennan. First things first - the news conference at City Hall. The Rental Housing Registry will be a city-run online listing of Fresno's rental residential properties. The city has tens of thousands of rental units - large apartment complexes, small apartmentテδづつ...
"Political warfare" is a form of strategy that leverages all of the diplomatic, informational, military, and economic capabilities at a nation's disposal to achieve its strategic objectives. Best described in a 1948 State Department memorandum by US Ambassador George Kennan, political warfare involved:.
"A Force So Swift" chronicles these epic changes through the eyes of a star-studded cast that includes President Harry Truman, the diplomat George Kennan, United States Representative Walter Judd, Gen. Douglas MacArthur, Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, Madame Chiang Kai-shek, Mao Zedong andテδづつ...
The Cold War brought along the policy of containment, set forth by George F. Kennan, the deputy chief of the US mission to the USSR (1944-1946). From Moscow, Kennan sent an eight-thousand-word long telegram received in Washington on February 22, 1946. The telegram convinced US president Harryテδづつ...
Averell Harriman. George F. Kennan. George C. Marshall. John J. McCloy. Harry Truman. They were visionaries who sewed capital into the war-torn nations of Europe through the Marshall Plan to speed the recovery of friend and foe alike, and not incidentally, open new markets for American manufacture.
In his Middle East-centric history, The Silk Roads: A New History of the World, author Peter Frankopan cites observations made in 1946 by George Kennan, then U.S. charge d'affairs at the U.S. embassy in Moscow, which are shockingly revealing of the intent behind Russia's efforts to undermine the 2016テδづつ...
Robert Lee's Dec. 2 narrative about America's founding years segues well into some considerations about the powerful global leadership we have assumed. George F. Kennan spent over three decades as a diplomat in the U.S. Foreign Service. His 1946 observations, "The Sources of Soviet Conduct,"テδづつ...
Robert Lee's Dec. 2 narrative about America's founding years segues well into some considerations about the powerful global leadership we have assumed. George F. Kennan spent over three decades as a diplomat in the U.S. Foreign Service. His 1946 observations, "The Sources of Soviet Conduct,"テδづつ...
One of the authors of that policy, George Kennan, concluded in his long telegram of 1946 that "the greatest danger that can befall us in coping with this problem of Soviet communism, is that we shall allow ourselves to become like those with whom we are coping." This is worth bearing in mind as the Russia investigationテδづつ...
While many of these publications worked as platforms for cold warriors such as the US diplomat George Kennan and helped to squash intellectual debate of the Vietnam War, others became radical trailblazers almost by accident: Nigeria's Black Orpheus was one of the first journals to publish traditionalテδづつ...
Ten Days that Shook the World, Reed's celebratory account of the Russian Revolution, is now hailed as an American classic. George Kennan of all people praised it as "a reflection of blazing honesty and a purity of idealism." In a recent New York Times retrospective, Condoleezza Rice, no Bolshevik, writesテδづつ...
The American diplomat and historian George F. Kennan is most remembered for authoring the "Long Telegram" from Moscow in February 1946, which examined the historical and ideological bases of Soviet foreign policy. It is one of the seminal documents of the early Cold War years, and it helped shapeテδづつ...
Everyone, for instance, knows by now that George Kennan, one of America's most famous diplomats and foreign policy thinkers of the twentieth century, starkly warned against NATO expansion in the 1990s (and he was hardly alone), but successive U.S. administrations pressed ahead anyways. There is noテδづつ...
This was largely because of the writings and influential public lectures of George Kennan, an American explorer who returned from Siberia inテδづつ...
In an environment in which Truman's 1947 doctrine and George Kennan's economically-based idea of containment were still the law of the landテδづつ...
When George Kennan was asked in 1967 by Foreign Affairs to reflect on the accomplishments and failures of Soviet rule at the 50-year mark, he stated that without a doubt, the October Revolution that had brought the Bolsheviks to power in Russia had altered world history and was the single mostテδづつ...
Here he is again, George Kennan, our Hodge Road landlord in the 1980s. It can't be helped. When the overriding subject of the hour is Russia,テδづつ...
In a speech to the American Foreign Service Association, the late George Kennan, the architect of U.S. containment policy against the Sovietテδづつ...
In this context, the closing lines of George F. Kennan's famed "Long Telegram" remain perhaps more relevant than ever. At the very start of theテδづつ...
... including J. William Fulbright and George Kennan, eventually convinced him of what early advisers had told him a long time before: We couldテδづつ...
That set the stage for a renewed great power struggle in Europe against a revanchist Russia, just as legendary diplomat George F. Kennanテδづつ...
... misconceptions and miscalculations led to "the great seminal catastrophe of this century," as George F. Kennan, called the war back in 1979.
The days when Atlantic policymakers and strategists could ignore major developments in Asia, and vice-versa, are long gone. North America, Europe, and Asiaテδづつ...
... that includes President Harry Truman, the diplomat George Kennan, ... George Kennan, viewed Mao's victory as the result of "tremendous,テδづつ...
I am thinking about our nation's experience in Vietnam and George Kennan's assessment of that endeavor. Kennan was the diplomat whoテδづつ...
Apropos this, I'd like to recall the following written about George Kennan, one of the most prominent American diplomats ever: Crossing Polandテδづつ...
This laser-focus on achieving U.S. security at all costs echoes realists, from Thucydides to Thomas Hobbes to George Kennan, who have longテδづつ...
Slaughter is President and CEO of New America and Jankowicz is a George F. Kennan fellow at the Wilson Centerテδづつ...
In 1946, George Kennan, an American diplomat, wrote his infamous Long Telegram, in which he spelled out the causes of Soviet conduct. Soviet behavior, which seemed irrational to most Americans, was not so irrational to Kennan. The main argument advanced by Kennan was that the Soviet Union hadテδづつ...


 

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