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 Kurdistan

Kurdistan is an area in the Middle East, inhabited mainly by the Kurds. Kurdistan covers parts of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Georgia and Syria. The borders of Kurdistan are hard to define, as none of the states in question acknowledge Kurdistan as a demographic or geographical region. There is a province of Kurdistan in Iran.


Before World War I, most Kurds lived within the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, the Allies created several countries within its former boundaries. Originally Kurdistan, along with Armenia was to be one of them, according to the Treaty of Svres. However, the reconquest of these areas by Kemal Atatrk and other pressing issues caused the Allies to accept the renegotiated Treaty of Lausanne, returning this territory to Turkey. Other Kurdish areas were assigned to the new states of Iraq and Syria under both treaties. These boundaries were drawn with more concern for the division of oil resources and influence between different colonial powers and for rewarding pro-Allied Arab leaders than for ethnic distributions.


Since then, Kurds have been divided between several states, in each of which they are minorities. Many Kurds have campaigned for independence or autonomy since then, but there has been no support by any of the regional governments or by outside powers for changes in regional boundaries. A sizeable Kurdish diaspora exists in Western Europe that participates in agitation for Kurdish issues, but most of the governments in the Middle East have historically banned open Kurdish activism.


In Turkey, Iran, and Iraq, Kurdish guerilla groups fight against the government and have some control over Kurdish areas.



Dutch: Koerdistan
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Kurdistan

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updated Thu. May 3, 2018

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Local Syrian sources said that Special French Forces arrived on Thursday at an American base in Ramlan area of Al-Hasakah Governorate, which is controlled by the Kurdish Peoples' Protection Units (YPG), the Anadolu Agency reported. The sources said that they did not know whether the French forces ...
The Kurdistan independence referendum, King said, “should have been honored,” as he noted that 92 percent of voters had chosen independence. “The Kurdish people have earned their independence,” he continued, “by defending themselves and by defending others who needed their defense,” in both Iraq and Syria.

ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) – Several Kurdish media outlets were prevented from covering an elections campaign by Iraqi Prime Minister, and Head of the al-Nasr (Victory) Coalition, Haider al-Abadi in the Kurdistan Region capital. Abadi arrived in Erbil on Thursday to commence the elections campaign for his ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region — Due to renewed armed clashes between PKK fighters and the Turkish army in mountainous areas of the Kurdistan Region, ... Heavy clashes broke out on Friday between Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) guerillas and Turkish soldiers near the villages of Lilkan, Khalifan, Gorasha ...
In northwestern Syria, people are trying to find some normalcy more than a month after Turkey ended its two-month assault on the Kurdish enclave. Vendors sell cucumbers, tomatoes, and other fresh vegetables at makeshift markets wherever they can find space in the bombed-out city. Young children ...
However, the opposition Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) earlier said that the Turkish leader's repeated announcements that they would resettle hundreds of thousands of Syrian refugees in the Afrin region of Syrian Kurdistan amounted to a war crime. “The government's plans to transfer 350,000 refugees ...

"All of Abadi's steps are a message to the Kurdistan Region's political parties, to all the political leaders and the citizens of the Kurdistan Region, and gives the message that says the Kurdistan Region and its cities are like a city in Basra, Najaf, and Karbala. This is how he views Kurdistan," Osman Karwani, ...
U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, center, takes his seat during a meeting of the North Atlantic Council at NATO headquarters in Brussels on Friday, April 27, 2018. NATO is set on Friday to hold its last major meeting in its old headquarters, with talks focused on strained ties with Russia, a fresh peace ...
ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) – Kurdish security confiscated some 50 kilograms of opioids at the Kurdistan Region's border with Turkey which was on its way to Syria, authorities revealed on Friday. The shipment was Heroin, which originally came from Iran and was smuggled through Turkey into the Kurdistan ...
ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) - Turkish authorities in Diyarbakir announced late Wednesday that a round-the-clock curfew would be enforced indefinitely in 17 villages and 53 hamlets of the Lice and Kulp districts in the north of the Kurdish province as part of efforts to fight the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). Hours earlier, a Turkish ...
Arriving in Baghdad, it is clear who has won the Iraq War. The Shia are in charge. Tower-sized, luminous green posters of Husseyn and Ali define the landscape, draped from Brezhnevite tower blocks, augmented by portraits of martyred fighters in identical uniforms, with a prominent place for Nimr Baqir ...
ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) – After nearly four years in the hands of the Islamic State (IS), a 19-year-old Yezidi (Ezidi) girl was rescued by Kurdistan Region security forces and reunited with her family in Zakho. Delal Mohsen was kidnapped at the age of 15 by IS militants in the Ezidi-populated region of Sinjar (Shingal). She spoke ...
In the first two parts of this interview we discussed the Turkish invasion of northern Syria. We also discussed the very complex U.S. relationship with the Kurdish forces, the People's Protection Units, the YPG. And we also discussed the history of Syria's relationship with the PKK, the Kurdistan Workers Party.
By Nawzad Mahmud and Hawkar Yasin SULAIMANI, Kurdistan Region – Political parties in Kurdistan Region are having to campaign for Iraqi parliamentary elections on a tight budget due to financial constraints. “Little money has been given to candidates to do their campaigning. The PUK has done some ...
In pictures: Iraqi campaign posters plaster Kurdistan Region ... Iraqi parliament's election campaigns officially kicked off on Sunday in the Kurdistan Region. ... Of the 329 Iraqi parliament seats, 18 are dedicated for Sulaimani which is the largest province in the Kurdistan Region and includes Halabja for ...
"The first concrete step in this direction was the decision to stop providing assistance to the Kurdish forces in northern Syrian regions under their control. But then an [alleged] chemical attack in Douma occurred, clearly demonstrating the degree of pressure exerted by the American establishment on Trump.".
ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) – An American boy who appeared in an Islamic State (IS) propaganda video last year is being held by Kurdish forces in Syria, along with his mother. The video, released in August, shows the 10-year-old boy who identifies himself as an American citizen named “Yusuf” and claims he is the son of a ...

Photo: Sartip Othman/Rudaw. ERBIL, Kurdistan Region – Several Arab lists are fielding candidates in the Kurdistan Region, competing for more than three million Kurdish votes. ... Of the 329 Iraqi parliament seats, 18 are reserved for Sulaimani, the largest province in the Kurdistan Region. Erbil has 16 and ...
Erbil, ruled with a tight fist by Masoud Barzani's Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), has not faced a public political protest for years. Last month's action was the first major show of political discontent directed at the government since 1996. That was the year when, amid a bloody Kurdish civil war, the KDP ...
(Erbil) – Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) security forces detained at least 84 protesters and four journalists in late March, Human Rights Watch said today. .... The relevant Kurdish law states that all protests require advance permission from the Ministry of Interior or other local authorities. Article 21 of ...
Posters for candidates and parties can now be seen in cities and towns across the Kurdistan Region, with as many electoral slogans being promoted. The campaign was delayed by a day to observe the 30th Anfal anniversary in the Kurdish region on Saturday. People commemorated the attack that claimed the lives of over ...
Iraqi Kurdish politics reached a critical point in September 2017, when the Kurdish region held a long-awaited independence referendum. The KRG and the then-president of the Kurdistan region, Masoud Barzani, used the referendum to dispel a mood of dissatisfaction and indignation by stirring up a ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region — Hundreds of Kurdish Grade 9 and 12 students in Tuz Khurmatu have not yet been received codes to allow then to enter final examinations. The students missed months of classes thanks to the October 16 events which forced them to flee to Kurdish cities. Returning students fear ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region — Kurds are remembering the Anfal campaign on its 30th anniversary when 182,000 people were massacred by the former Baathist ... Kurdish term that literally means a young donkey, but politically it is used for Kurdish people acting as mercenaries for the enemies of Kurdistan.
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region — Turkish airstrikes killed three brothers in the town of Shiladze in the northern reaches of the Kurdistan Region. ... They were targeted by the Turkish bombings while they were visiting their orchards and groves in the village which lies on the Kurdistan Region-Turkey border.
ERBIL (Kurdistan 24) – A Kurdish NGO focusing on women's empowerment held a three-day workshop this week in the Kurdistan Region's capital of Erbil for social workers and teachers to teach them about art as a means of therapy. Bayen Rasul Galaly, a psychiatrist by profession and co-founder of the ...
Turkish state has taken similar measures like banning the words “Kurd” and “Kurdistan” from parliament since the peace process stalled with the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in July 2015. Kurdish political leaders have been jailed and dismissed from parliament. In several instances, the state installed ...
The former Iraqi regime destroyed thousands of Kurdish villages. Thousands of Kurdish families were also forcibly displaced, and their lands given to Arab families, a process Kurds call Arabization. April 14 marks Anfal memorial day in the Kurdistan Region, where it is recognized as a genocide. Anfal, the ...
Kurdish shepherds, shwan in Kurdish, play football near Adalar village, in Amed (Diyarbakir), Turkey. Photos: Ilyas Akengin/AFP. Galleries; Your Rudaw. Kurdistan. In pictures: The beautiful game: Kurdish shepherds playing football · In pictures: Kurdish schools resume in Khurmatu, but with low turnout ...
In Washington, a big concern is that the Kurdish revolutionaries are carving out an anticapitalist space that firmly rejects the basic premises of the US-led global order. Another major reservation is that the Kurdish revolutionaries have historic ties to the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which the US ...
One of the Dogan Group's most widely circulated newspapers, the Hurriyet, had been the target of mob attacks claiming the publication was spreading propaganda for the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK). The PKK is an insurgent group fighting for the rights of Kurdish people and culture, but Turkey ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region – Christians in the Kurdistan Region and across the world marked Good Friday, remembering of the crucifixion of Jesus Christ, with the leader of the Roman Catholic ... About half the population has left Iraq since 2014 and around 130,000 sought shelter in the Kurdistan Region.
Trump freezes $200 million in funds for Kurdish-held areas in Syria. By Rudaw 8 hours ago. A man sells bread at the open air market in Manbij on March 28, 2018. Photo: Delil Souleiman | AFP. ERBIL, Kurdistan Region — US President Donald Trump ordered the State Department on Friday to freeze more than $200 million ...
Iraqi lawmakers have passed one of the most politically charged annual budgets in recent memory. In what is seen as a move to lock in votes from a broad spectrum of Iraqi ethnic groups opposed to Kurdish separatism, Baghdad's latest budget saw the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) take another ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region (Kurdistan 24) – The US-backed Kurdish-led Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) stated on Friday that they have not been informed of any planned withdrawal of US forces from Syria as part of the international coalition against the Islamic State (IS). US President Donald Trump stated at a rally in Ohio ...
The Kurdistan Region's referendum in 2017 proved Kurdish aspirations for independence are not extinguished, as 93 percent of voters overwhelmingly ticked 'Yes' for separation from ... Many cities across greater Kurdistan have streets named for the revolutionary and the short-lived Soviet-backed republic.
Osman Baydemir: First of all, I offer my greetings to all Rudaw viewers, especially the people who live in Kurdistan. Actually the current situation in Middle East is very hard for all people of Kurdistan. There are huge attacks on human values. As HDP and as a Kurd, I know very well that no problem can be ...
French President Macron has said France wants to mediate between Turkey and Kurdish-dominated Syrian Democratic Forces in northern Syria. ... Turkey sees the SDF as a security threat because of its alleged links to the Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK), which has waged an armed campaign against ...
More than 40,000 people have been killed in the conflict between the Turkish state and PKK since 1984, when the group launched a Kurdish uprising. Violence generally escalates as spring arrives in Turkey's mountainous southeast, which is mainly Kurdish. In 2015, two-year-long peace negotiations ...
Founded in 1945 by iconic Kurdish leader and President of the short-lived Kurdistan Republic of Mahabad, Qazi Muhammad, the PDKI, a secular and social democratic party, for decades has been fighting for Kurdish autonomy and rights in Iran. The PDKI reignited a conflict with the Islamic Republic of Iran in June 2016, ...
Amid growing protests, senior Kurdish government officials held a meeting on Wednesday and vowed to change the current salary structure to meet the protesters' demands. Before 2014, the salaries of civil servants were paid for by the central government in Baghdad. However, the Kurdish government ...
March is an auspicious time in the Kurdish regions of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran. It is the month of Newroz, the Persian new year which is also celebrated by Kurds. In the Kurdistan Region of northern Iraq, the prime minister of the Kurdistan Regional Government, Nechirvan Barzani, said the new year ...
Turkey's president has announced the country is conducting operations in northern Iraq against Kurdish rebels it deems "terrorists." Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Sunday said "operations" have begun in Sinjar to clear the mountainous area of Kurdistan Workers' Party, or PKK, fighters. Erdogan later said that if ...
The Barchav Organization was founded in the city of Kobani in 2013 before relocating to Erbil in the Kurdistan Region where it has engaged in humanitarian activities. The organization's work is focused on carrying out development projects in areas of conflict, primarily Kurdish regions in Syria, as is the ...
Health workers have worked for the Kurdish cause and so have accepted the situation as the Kurds build a state, but as long as Kurdistan is part of Iraq, they must be a full partner, the representative said. “We will not accept them considering us as number two in Iraq. They must count us as the people of ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region – British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson sent a Newroz message to the prime minister of the Kurdistan Region on Saturday, saying the UK wants to coordinate with the KRG to promote a ... May had at the time promised “to fight” to protect the Kurdish identity and their rights in Iraq.
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region (Kurdistan 24) – Turkish courts on Friday handed a combined sentence of 28 years to two pro-Kurdish Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP) deputies over “terrorism”-related charges. A High Criminal Court in Van handed HDP deputy Lezgin Botan an 18-year prison sentence, accusing him of ...
ERBIL, Kurdistan Region (Kurdistan 24) – Turkey's military command announced on Saturday that, in the previous week, Turkish forces had “neutralized a total of 91 terrorists” in Turkey's southeastern provinces and the Kurdistan Region. Turkish officials routinely use the word “neutralized” in statements to refer to Kurdish ...
The long and gruesome war that the Kurds have waged against the Islamic State (IS) group has not only left thousands dead but also produced many prisoners. For the first time, a TV crew has been allowed inside the Kurdish courts, where judges following Kurdish laws try the jihadists behind some of the ...
Baghdad (IraqiNews.com) Turkish strikes in northern Iraq have killed 91 Kurdish militants in the last week, the armed forces staff declared on Saturday as Turkey continues to target fighters it designates as terrorists. The Turkish armed forces staff said in a tweet that “In the anti-terrorism operation, between ...


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