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 vertebrates

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updated Wed. April 18, 2018

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They describe the extent of vertebrate pollination -- it's performed by no fewer than 960 bird species, along with dozens of mammals and reptiles -- and analyze 126 experiments in which plants were enclosed in screens that only allowed insects through. Without vertebrates to pollinate them, those ...
"Our study reveals some groups of virus have been in existence for the entire evolutionary history of the vertebrates -- it transforms our understanding of virus ... Because the evolutionary histories of these viruses generally matched those of their vertebrates, the scientists were able to conclude that ...

It turns out that bees aren't the only crucial players when it comes to plant pollination, as several different vertebrates are also an important part of the process. Mice, birds, bats, and lemurs are all pollinators, and some have even developed complex relationships with certain plants aiding in reproduction.
In plants known to receive flower visitations from vertebrates, fruit and seed production drops 63 percent, on average, when the larger animals, but not insects, are experimentally blocked from accessing the plants, ecologists report in the March cover study for the Ecological Society of America's ...
They focussed on viruses specific to vertebrates, and the 214 viruses they found fell into every family or immediate sister-groups of RNA viruses associated with vertebrate infection. Twenty-four percent of those viruses were recovered from different tissues within the same individual. "Fish, in particular, ...

"On the one hand, there was this idea that the third eye was simply reduced independently in many different vertebrate groups such as mammals and birds and is retained only in lizards among fully land-dwelling vertebrates," says Krister Smith at the Senckenberg Research Institute in Germany. "On ...
Researchers have found an ancient monitor lizard with a fourth eye -- a discovery that may signal a new wrinkle in the way eyesight evolved in vertebrates. "This tells us how easy it is, in terms of evolution, for a complex organ to self-assemble under certain circumstances," said Yale ...
As you picture the first fish to crawl out of primordial waters onto land, it's easy to imagine how its paired fins eventually evolved into the arms and legs of modern-day vertebrates, including humans. But a new study by researchers from the University of Chicago and the Andalusian Center for ...
While previous research has reported examples of maternal stress experience predicting offspring stress hormones in different species, this study is the first to empirically demonstrate the impact of prenatal stress on offspring stress hormone levels using data from all known studies across vertebrates.
Until now, only three known examples existed among vertebrates: deep-sea dragonfishes, lanternfishes, and flashlight fishes. These animals perform this trick using built-in chemiluminescent “searchlights”—a specialized light organ located next to the pupil. As sunlight trickles down from above, these light ...
Will you select from the vertebrates: reptiles, amphibians, birds, fish, and mammals, or the invertebrates, which are not quite as common to us? They include: worms, snails, spiders, crabs, insects, centipedes, spiny sea creatures (star fish), soft-bodied sea creatures (jelly fish) and microscopic cells.
Tides that left fish high and dry hundreds of millions of years ago could have kick-started the evolution of land-walking vertebrates. New calculations ... In 2014, he suggested that Earth's tidal ranges would have been greater around the time the first four-limbed vertebrates, or tetrapods, appeared on land.
The Cornell Museum of Vertebrates now has three California condor specimens in its collection, thanks to a donation by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). “They are our first condors, which is very exciting,” said Vanya Rohwer, curator of birds and mammals at the museum, which is ...
Many living vertebrates have the ability to detect electric fields, especially in other animals when hunting. But what can the fossil record tell us about the origins of this sensory system?
Previously confined to the ocean, our tetrapod forefathers took to the surface world and, over the course of millions of years, traded fins and gills for limbs and lungs. (Tetrapod just refers to vertebrates with two pairs of limbs.) Here's a quick video refresher, courtesy of the journal Cell and associate professor ...
The little skate, a fish closely related to sharks and rays, not only displays walking behavior on the seafloor, but uses neurons and genes that are nearly identical to the ones vertebrates use to walk on land, said Jeremy Dasen, an associate professor at the N.Y.U. School of Medicine's Neuroscience Institute ...

Researchers at the University of Birmingham have discovered that the mass extinction seen in plant species caused by the onset of a drier climate 307 million years ago led to extinctions of some groups of tetrapods, the first vertebrates to live on land, but allowed others to expand across the globe.
FILE - In a May 12, 2010 file photo, Bill Simpson, collections manager of fossil vertebrates at Chicago's Field Museum, reaches over to dust the Tyrannosaurus rex skeleton known as Sue on display at museum in Chicago. Officials with the Field Museum say the T. rex named Sue, which has been at the ...
The inner ear is an organ that is essential for maintaining body balance and adapting head posture during movement in most vertebrates. ... In the inner ear of vertebrates, the balance system consists of three semicircular canals that contain fluid and sensory hair cells that detect movement of the head.
In the January 30 Nature Communications, researchers led by Christoph Kaleta at Christian-Albrechts University in Kiel, Germany, reported that the transcriptional changes seen in aging people, and in older vertebrates, are similar to those that occur in neurodegeneration, but different from changes in ...
In the inner ear of vertebrates, the balance system consists of three semicircular canals that contain fluid and sensory hair cells that detect movement of the head. Each of the semicircular canals is positioned at a different angle and is especially sensitive to different movements: up and down, side-to-side, ...
"We were surprised to find that the terminal nerve acts as a carbon dioxide sensor in zebrafish," says Koide. "Although it was identified as an additional cranial nerve in humans and other vertebrates more than a century ago, ours is the first to report its function in chemosensation." Indeed, the terminal nerve ...
"We were surprised to find that the terminal nerve acts as a carbon dioxide sensor in zebrafish," says Koide. "Although it was identified as an additional cranial nerve in humans and other vertebrates more than a century ago, ours is the first to report its function in chemosensation." Indeed, the terminal nerve ...
Most alphaviruses are mosquito borne and exhibit a broad host range, infecting many different vertebrates, including birds, rodents, equids, humans, and nonhuman primates. Recently, a host-restricted, mosquito-borne alphavirus, Eilat virus (EILV), was described with an inability to infect vertebrate cells ...
But our studies have also revealed some strange features of the lamprey, including the fact that they get rid of hundreds of genes early in development. Sea lampreys have several traits that other (jawed) vertebrates do not, suggesting that these traits either (a) were present in our last shared ancestor and ...
Back when vertebrates were just emerging, the world was inhabited by some pretty peculiar creatures. We know of their ... The pipecleaner-like creature is called Kootenayscolex barbarensis, and it lived around 508 million years ago during the Cambrian era, not long after the first vertebrates emerged.
In many areas, such as memory, their cognitive powers match or exceed those of supposedly “higher” vertebrates, including nonhuman primates. Fish use tools. They nurture their young. They communicate with each other. And they too, deserve to be treated humanely. In addition to the fish targeted, nearly ...
'Dark matter' DNA influences brain development. Researchers are finally figuring out the purpose behind some genome sequences that are nearly identical across vertebrates.
... January 18, 2018. Chameleons are color-changing, tongue-whipping, eye-rolling lizards. But did you know they also glow in the dark? A new study published this week in the journal Scientific Reports revealed just that. It's the first time researchers have reported bone-based fluorescence in vertebrates.
Sixty percent of the world's invertebrates and 30 percent of vertebrates are nocturnal and if they are deprived of darkness, particular in urban areas,” says Bob, who points to the decline in sparrows in many towns and cities. “If there is no night then various species just can't survive and if you impact one link ...
Invasive species occur on 779 of the islands with highly threatened vertebrates, according to the study, but many of these islands, especially those with threatened reptiles or birds, were found to be smaller and subject to fairly minimal human habitation or development activities. The team said that this ...
23; "Development of High-Energy Density Lithium-ion Batteries at Argonne National Laboratory" by Argonne National Laboratory's Dr. Andrew Jansen on Friday, March 9; and "Great Steps in the History of Life: The Origin of Limbed Vertebrates" by Curator and Professor at the Academy of Natural Sciences ...
“While hybrid plant species are very common, hybrid species among vertebrates are exceedingly rare,” said Jason Weir, a biologist at the University of Toronto, in a press release. Weir and his team, which published its findings in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, sequenced much of ...
Although hybridization among vertebrates in the wild is rare, it has been recorded in some animal populations. For example, the red wolf of eastern North America is a possible hybrid between the coyote and grey wolf, Live Science previously reported. Even rarer, however, is when a hybrid species ...
“Hearing is the universal surveillance system across vertebrates,” Francis said. “We're interfering with birds' ability to detect predators or find food, and that can cause many problems, including the chronic stress and reproductive issues found in this study.” The study was funded by National Geographic, the National Science ...
And their brain activity during injury is analogous to that in terrestrial vertebrates: sticking a pin into goldfish or rainbow trout, just behind their gills, stimulates nociceptors and a cascade of electrical activity that surges toward brain regions essential for conscious sensory perceptions (such as the cerebellum, ...
The Dissection of Vertebrates, Second Edition, provides students with a manual that combines pedalogical effective text with high-quality, accurate, and attractive visual references. Using a systemic approach within a systematic framework for each vertebrate, this book covers several animals commonly ...
When ticks (Ixodes scapularis species; commonly known as deer ticks) bite humans or other vertebrates, they can transmit dangerous, brain-infecting viruses in the Flaviviridae viral family, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). However, the mechanisms underlying transmission of Flaviviridae from ...
Along with a pronounced nasal cavity, turkey vultures possess a large olfactory bulb, a portion of the forebrain in vertebrates dedicated to scent. The Scientific Reports study aimed to take a deeper look at this structure. As Alicia Ault explained in a Smithsonian summary of the work, "Like the post-apocalyptic ...
Wear and tear on fossil teeth of Dimorphodon macronyx (illustration) reveal it likely ate insects and small land vertebrates.Credit: ... methods to look at wear patterns in pterosaurs alongside the teeth of living species of bats, lizards and crocodilians that are known to eat insects or fish and other vertebrates.
“Leishmania is descended from parasites that infect insects, and only late in evolution did it learn how to infect vertebrates and then humans, and become a problem for us,” Beverly said. “A lot of researchers are doing amazing work in viral discovery, but very few have hunted around in these oddball ...
Leishmania is descended from parasites that infect insects, and only late in evolution did it learn how to infect vertebrates and then humans, and become a problem for us. This study started as a survey of a family of insect parasites related to Leishmania, which we performed in collaboration with a team led ...
When ticks (Ixodes scapularis species; commonly known as deer ticks) bite humans or other vertebrates, they can transmit dangerous, brain-infecting viruses in the Flaviviridae viral family, such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). However, the mechanisms underlying transmission of Flaviviridae from ...
Leishmania is descended from parasites that infect insects, and only late in evolution did it learn how to infect vertebrates and then humans, and become a problem for us. This study started as a survey of a family of insect parasites related to Leishmania, which we performed in collaboration with a team led ...
The ancestor of all vertebrates, including fish, reptiles and humans was a big mouth but apparently had no anus. The microscopic creature named Saccorhytus, after the sack-like features created by its elliptical body and large mouth, lived 540 million years ago. It was identified from microfossils found in ...
Current higher level research with oVert includes the study of patterns of relationships among both living and extinct vertebrates, testing hypotheses of morphological evolution, generating “structure-function” models for testing hypotheses, investigation of feeding and locomotion, and analysis of brain and ...
In 1875, German zoologist Anton Dohrn noted anatomical similarities between the central nerve cord that runs length-wise through the bodies of annelids — a group of invertebrates that includes earthworms — and the nerve cord in the spine of vertebrates. He proposed that the groups' ancient common ...
It seems that even scientific endeavors fall victim to feature creep — or in the case of an effort to scan all fishes that has expanded to include all vertebrates, creature creep. More than a dozen learning institutions are pooling their resources to create detailed 3D scans, inside and out, of more than 20,000 ...
Right on the heels of surprising research into the species of self-cloning, macromutant crustaceans known as the marbled crayfish comes yet more insight into the bizarre world of asexually reproducing vertebrates. Asexual vertebrates are rare. Indeed, up until the 1930s it was thought that they didn't, and ...


 

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