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 opioids

Opioids are substances that act on Opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are primarily used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, and suppressing opioid induced constipation. Extremely potent Opioids such as carfentanil are only approved for veterinary use. Opioids are also frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal.


Side effects of Opioids may include itchiness, sedation, nausea, respiratory depression, constipation, and euphoria. Tolerance and dependence will develop with continuous use, requiring increasing doses and leading to a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation. The euphoria attracts recreational use, and frequent, escalating recreational use of Opioids typically results in addiction. An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs commonly results in death from respiratory depression.


Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors mediate both the psychoactive and the somatic effects of Opioids. Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other Opioids from binding in those receptors.


Because of opioid drugs' reputation for addiction and fatal overdose, most are controlled substances. In 2013, between 28 and 38 million people used Opioids illicitly (0.6% to 0.8% of the global population between the ages of 15 and 65). In 2011, an estimated 4 million people in the United States used Opioids recreationally or were dependent on them. As of 2015, increased rates of recreational use and addiction are attributed to over-prescription of opioid medications and inexpensive illicit heroin. Conversely, fears about over-prescribing, exaggerated side effects and addiction from Opioids are similarly blamed for under-treatment of pain.

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updated Mon. March 26, 2018

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Although the shortage was not directly caused by the opioid addiction crisis, the response to it is being impaired by some of the legal controls surrounding these drugs. In order to increase the supply of injectable opioids, the Drug Enforcement Administration, which regulates the distribution 8 of controlled ...
Doctors warn the NHS is fuelling an addiction crisis because of an increase in the prescribing of powerful painkillers. Nearly 24 million opioids, such as morphine, were prescribed in 2017 - equivalent to 2,700 packs an hour. A drugs counsellor and former user told the BBC the NHS was "creating drug ...

Opioids were responsible for just under 800 of the German deaths, as opposed to an estimated 50,000 opioid related deaths in the US. Meanwhile, the number of drug-related deaths has remained stable in Germany in recent years, despite a headline grabbing 15 percent rise between 2015 and 2016.
There were more than 64,000 drug overdose deaths in 2016, mostly involving opioids, according to the most recent federal mortality data. The CDC last week reported that emergency rooms recorded a 30 percent spike in opioid overdoses last summer, indicating that the devastating crisis is worsening.
Several large studies show an increased risk of suicide among drug users addicted to opioids, especially women. In a study of 5 million veterans, women were eight times as likely as others to be at risk for suicide, while men faced a twofold risk. The opioid epidemic is occurring at the same time suicides ...
A controversial new study argues that laws expanding access to naloxone, the anti-opioid overdose medication, have increased opioid-related ER visits and theft while doing nothing to curb mortality. The study found opioid-related deaths increased 14 percent in the Midwest after these laws were in effect.

For decades, medicine's overwhelming response has been prescription opioids like hydrocodone and fentanyl. Retail pharmacies dispensed more than 214 million opioid prescriptions in 2016. That's more than 66 prescriptions for every 100 people and more prescriptions than any other country in the ...
But he acknowledges that dependency can develop in as little as two weeks, which helps explain why doctors and patients are increasingly viewing opioids as more of a last resort for pain, and looking more seriously at non-opioid treatments. "A foundation of therapy needs to be tried that is comprised of ...
From 2010 to 2015, annual overdose deaths involving opioids increased nearly 57 percent, largely due to the spike in use of fentanyl and other synthetic opioids. Of the 42,000 opioid overdose deaths in 2016, 19,400 were linked to synthetic opioids, making those the deadliest opioids for the first time.
These hypersensitive patients often had a history of using opioids. Shouldn't these patients be less susceptible to pain, instead of more so? As I looked into it, I found that I was far from the first to notice the paradox of heightened pain sensitivity with opioid use. An English physician in 1870 reported on ...
In 2016, the most recent year for which data are available, opioid-related overdoses killed more than 42,000 Americans. That's an average of 115 deaths every day. Last November the president's commission on opioids released a lengthy set of recommendations, and most remain a work in progress or ...
In 2016, the most recent year for which data are available, opioid-related overdoses killed more than 42,000 Americans. That's an average of 115 deaths every day. Last November, the president's commission on opioids released a lengthy set of recommendations, and most remain a work in progress or ...
awmakers in Kentucky are weighing whether to impose a new tax on opioid prescriptions, the latest effort in a string of so-far failed attempts to pull new revenue from the painkillers that helped seed a nationwide addiction crisis 1. The proposed tax 2 — a 25-cent levy on drug distributors for every dose sent ...
Opioids are on the White House agenda Thursday — President Trump plans to talk with members of his administration about the crisis. Meanwhile, all around the United States, state legislators, treatment providers, families and many others will be listening. The administration's other opioid efforts have, ...
The White House is convening a summit today on the nation's opioid crisis. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that overdoses kill an average of 115 Americans every day. And the rising addiction rate is blamed for reducing life expectancy, also costing the U.S. economy more than a ...
The misconception about opioid use is the belief that it's a choice. There has been so much research that links opioid addiction with attachment disorder. So you have people who have suffered from poor parental bonding getting hooked on opioids often at the hands of the medical community; they go to jail, ...
The host of “Aches and Gain,” a Sirius XM talk show on pain management, Christo has educated hundreds of patients and listeners on the benefits and drawbacks of prescription opioids. And while he's made a career in pain management, he also worried that a widespread focus on opioid abuse could ...

The prescription of opioid drugs by GPs in England is steadily rising, especially in more deprived communities, even though they are potentially dangerous and do not work for chronic pain, a new study reveals. The study shines an alarming new light on the legal use of opioids in England; potentially ...
The opioid epidemic has cost the U.S. more than a trillion dollars since 2001, according to a new study, and may exceed another $500 million over the ... In his budget, President Trump is proposing $13 billion in new spending on opioids, but that's partially offset by cuts in other healthcare programs like ...
Drug-makers gave millions of dollars to pain-treatment advocacy groups over a five-year period beginning in 2012, in effect promoting opioids to individuals most ... "The pharmaceutical industry spent a generation downplaying the risks of opioid addiction and trying to expand their customer base for these ...
Helping to fuel the crisis has been the overprescription of opioids. According to a CDC report from 2014, in 2012 there were nearly nine high-dose opioid pain reliever prescriptions for every 100 people and 21.7 extended-release opioid pain reliever prescriptions for every 100 people, the highest and ...
Not long ago, The Chicago Tribune reported that physicians in many Chicago-area hospitals are trying to overturn their profession's longstanding dependence on opioids. That paper reported that Chicago's Rush University Medical Center has turned, over the past six months, to giving post-surgical patients ...
I don't think so,” Igor Grant, director of UC San Diego's Center for Medicinal Cannabis Research, said. For one thing, only some opioid addicts use the drug for pain; any use it to get high. Keith Humphreys, who studies addiction and drug policy at Stanford University, agreed. “Many people use opioids and ...
White House aides and a bipartisan group of lawmakers on Capitol Hill are cheering $6 billion in new funding to fight the opioid crisis in the recently ... than advocates would like, including a speech on Thursday, Attorney General Jeff Sessions suggested people addicted to opioids needs to get tougher.
The budget proposal would allocate $13 billion to combat an opioid crisis that's sweeping the US. (It's a serious crisis; opioids are killing so many people that life expectancy is going down in the US.) But overall, the Department of Health and Human Services is getting a 21 percent cut from 2017 levels.
As the opioid crisis rages across the country and in rural California, the California Department of Justice has not yet certified a database designed to ... in 2016 required doctors to check the Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System (CURES) before prescribing opioids and other ...
This story, from last year, exemplifies the scope of America's opioid epidemic and how important naloxone is to fighting it. In 2016, nearly 64,000 people died of overdoses in the US, about two-thirds of which were linked to opioids — the highest number of drug overdoses for any single year in US history.
The company is slashing its sales force in half to 200, and the remaining representatives will no longer visit doctors to market Purdue's opioid products, the Los Angeles Times reported. "We have restructured and significantly reduced our commercial operation and will no longer be promoting opioids to ...
Elaine McMillion Sheldon's harrowing documentary Heroin(e) chronicles the daily lives and work of three women devoted to easing the opioid epidemic in their hometown of Huntington, West Virginia—a once-bustling hamlet now better known now as the epicenter of the opioid epidemic. According to ...
... from 1999 to 2015, admissions to treatment centers in Pierce County for heroin and opioid addictions went up 193 percent. There is a steady number of students in high schools finding themselves using opioid-based drugs and a large portion of homeless residents are addicted to some form of opioids.
CRITTENDEN COUNTY, Ark. — One Mid-South city is getting another resource for fighting the opioid epidemic in the form of a new outpatient treatment center. Carol LeMay is an advocate in the fight against opioid addiction. “I've went to too many funerals. I've seen too many good people die,” she said.
A spokeswoman for Morrisey said an anti-opioids plan was already in the works and that the AG's office — in conjunction with the governor's office — is doing a survey to see what law enforcement in all of West Virginia's 55 counties need the combat the crisis. Those findings will be presented to lawmakers ...
“The announcement that the sheriff's association is making today is a huge step in the right direction for the fight against opioid drugs,” White said. “There are more overdose deaths in Oklahoma that involve prescription opioids than all illicit overdoses combined. There have been far too many Oklahomans ...
The program focused on a few recommendations for patients on opioids for non-cancer pain: mental health screening, which can identify conditions such as depression that should be treated separately; treatment agreements, which patients sign to acknowledge risks and commit to safeguards; and urine ...
She was the only victim of the opioid crisis mentioned in Trump's address — and the speech treated her fate as irrelevant. The president did not present her story as a testament to the need for congressional action on opioids, but rather as an affirmation of the fact that “the most difficult challenges bring out ...
Meanwhile, an opioid epidemic has led to the deadliest drug overdose crisis in US history — with nearly 64,000 drug overdose deaths in 2016 (at least two-thirds of which were linked to opioids), up more than 20 percent from the more than 52,000 drug overdose deaths in 2015. Now, a prominent criminal ...
As part of international drug-control conventions, countries report the use of narcotics—like opioids, cocaine, and cannabis—for legal medicinal and scientific use to the United Nations each year. Opioids include such drugs as morphine, oxycodone, and fentanyl. (Heroin is also an opioid, but is not reported ...
The lawsuit, filed in the U.S. District Court for the Middle District of Alabama, says Purdue's “misrepresentations” enabled the spread of opioid use in the state. According to studies, Alabama has 1.2 prescriptions for opioids for every man, woman and child in the state. More: Alabama opioid report looks for ...
The Food and Drug Administration declared kratom — a plant-based stimulant with growing popularity — to be an opioid on Tuesday, opening a new front in its battle to get people to stop using the herbal supplement. New research shows kratom acts in the brain just as other opioids do, FDA Commissioner ...
Meanwhile, in a trend public health officials regard as encouraging, the number of clients enrolled at a local clinic prescribing methadone, which helps addicts wean themselves from opioids, has risen dramatically. Law enforcement and public health officials expressed optimism that the opioid epidemic in ...
Bill Haslam announced a $30 million plan to combat the state's opioid problem. “This is a crisis that knows no boundaries and impacts many Tennesseans regardless of race, income, gender or age,” said Haslam. “Our approach will be aggressive with provisions to limit the supply of opioids and significant ...
The Lima News launches an occasional series, “Addicted & Dying: The opioid epidemic in Ohio,” to continue our look at how opiates affect us locally. ... Likewise, Kaufman jokingly dismissed a widely held notion that the flow of illegal opioids comes from individuals — usually young people — who are ...
With more opioid-related drug deaths than homicides in Detroit last year, local and federal law enforcement agencies have formed a group to battle the epidemic, with plans to hold drug dealers responsible if they sell drugs to someone who dies from an overdose. Officials from the Detroit Police Department ...
That's because an increase in the use of illegal opioids — including heroin, fentanyl and carfentanil — has more than made up for the decrease in prescription opioid-based painkiller use in West Viriginia. And the state remains the leader in overdose deaths per capita in the United States, which is dealing ...
The suit alleges that from January 2010 through December 2016, McKesson distributed 18,434,834 doses of prescription opioids in Floyd County alone, amounting to 477 opioid pills for every person living in the county. The excessive distribution stems from McKesson's "filling massive and/or 'suspicious' ...
It's a trend that's occurring around Steuben County. “I get at least three to five anonymous tips a day,” said Steuben County Sheriff Jim Allard. Most of those tips involve meth or opioids. Allard said 16 deaths due to opioid overdoses occurred in 2016, up from four deaths in 2015. This is partly attributed to the ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently reported 3 that more than 63,600 people died from drug overdoses in 2016 (the last year with complete statistics); more than two-thirds of those were due to opioids. It was the worst year on record — and even more families lost loved ones to opioids ...
... evolution of the opioid epidemic. Most of these celebrity deaths underscored the fact that drug combinations are particularly deadly, especially those involving alcohol or alprazolam (commonly known as Xanax). We learned drug users like Monteith and Hoffman were switching from prescription opioids, ...
... in the pharmaceutical supply chain, and that it distributes opioids only to pharmacies that are licensed with the state and registered with the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. She pointed to a statement on the company's website saying allegations that McKesson fueled opioid abuse are unfounded.
Arizona officials' plan to deal with the rising crisis of opioid addiction is to limit the amount of pills doctors could prescribe. Legislation coming from Gov. Doug Ducey would seek to bar physicians from prescribing more than five days for patients that are new to taking opioids. The bill would seek to not impact ...


 

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