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 republics

A republic (Latin: res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers. The primary positions of power within a republic are not inherited. It is a form of government under which the head of state is not a monarch.


In American English, the definition of a republic can also refer specifically to a government in which elected individuals represent the citizen body. and a republic that exercises power according to the rule of law with a constitution including separation of powers with a separate elected chief executive (a constitutional republic) or representative democracy (a democratic republic).


As of 2017, 159 of the world's 206 sovereign states use the word "republic" as part of their official names – not all of these are republics in the sense of having elected governments, nor is the word "republic" used in the names of all nations with elected governments. While heads-of-state often tend to claim that they rule only by the "consent of the governed", elections in some countries have been found to be held more for the purpose of "show" than for the actual purpose of in reality providing citizens with any genuine ability to choose their own leaders.


The term republic was first coined c. 500 BC in Rome, but over time the term has undergone several changes in meaning. Initially the Latin term res publica signified the earlier "partial form of democracy" as found in Rome from c. 500 BC until c. 27 BC. In this early Roman partial-democracy, the power of the aristocratic or patrician class who held all of the seats in the Roman Senate, was checked by the institution of the consulship, whose two consul/vice-rulers were elected annually by the free citizens or plebes of Rome. The ancient Roman definition of the word differs from the modern use of the term, where no leadership positions are held to be restricted to only the "ruling class".


Most often a republic is a single sovereign state, but there are also sub-sovereign state entities that are referred to as republics, or that have governments that are described as "republican" in nature. For instance, Article IV of the United States Constitution "guarantee[s] to every State in this Union a Republican form of Government". In contrast, the former Soviet Union, which described itself as being a group of "republics" and also as a "federal multinational state composed of 15 republics", was widely viewed as being an authoritarian form of government and not as a republican form of government. It was seen as authoritarian, as its electoral system was structured so as to automatically guarantee the election of government-sponsored candidates.

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updated Fri. March 30, 2018

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Colin Neill, chief executive of Hospitality Ulster, the industry group which represents licensed premises across the North including pubs, restaurants and hotels, says there is no doubt that businesses in Northern Ireland will lose out to their competitors in the Republic this Easter. Mr Neill said the rule ...
Time passes and people die. The instants of pure splendor are what make life livable, make it writable. The Sparsholt Affair affirms them, again. Josephine Livingstone is the culture staff writer at The New Republic. @Jo_Livingstone. Read More. Culture, Books, Alan Hollinghurst, Oxford, Gay Literature, ...

... Zuckerberg could make radical changes to Facebook. But he hasn't, in part because he appears blind to its effects. Alex Shephard is a staff writer at The New Republic. @alex_shephard. Read More. Technology, Tech, Facebook, Business, Mark Zuckerberg, Cambridge Analytica, Privacy, social ...
MOBILE, AL (WKRG) - UPDATE 7:15 am: Mobile Fire-Rescue says the explosion was minor and their crews have cleared the scene. Light smoke is being reported at a trash disposal facility in Mobile following an explosion. It happened at Republic Services on Varner Drive. Mobile Fire-Rescue and ...
Thousands of people attended rallies across the Republic yesterday, expressing solidarity with the woman at the centre of the Ulster Rugby rape trial. Details of the events had been circulated widely on social media beforehand. A large crowd of around 1,000 people gathered at The Spire in Dublin ...

Don Blankenship is one of the most hated men in West Virginia. Thanks to the president, he could be the state's next senator. By Mason Adams. March 30, 2018. There are a lot of people who loathe Don Blankenship, the former head of Massey Energy. Start with the coal miners, 29 of whom were killed in 2010 when ...
Johannesburg - The Minister of International Relations and Cooperation Lindiwe Sisulu, and Bulahi Sid, Minister of Cooperation of the Saharawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR), on Thursday, signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on Technical Assistance and the Exchange of Notes ... Arab
Two months after the start of a sexual misconduct investigation into the high-ranking music executive Charlie Walk, the president of the Republic Group, the label and Mr. Walk "have mutually agreed to part ways," the company said Wednesday night in a brief statement. Universal Music Group, ...
I'd like to take issue with several points raised by Professor David Schultz in his opinion piece ("Why a constitutional convention is a bad idea," March 18). I think it prudent to give a perspective from the grassroots. Anger with Washington, D.C., is clear, and the "deep state" is becoming more evident as ...
A Concluding Statement describes the preliminary findings of IMF staff at the end of an official staff visit (or 'mission'), in most cases to a member country. Missions are undertaken as part of regular (usually annual) consultations under Article IV of the IMF's Articles of Agreement, in the context of a request to ...
TO BE FAIR, it was kind of ironic that The Fray's 'How to Save a Life' was playing in the background as Republic of Ireland footballer, Megan Connolly, nearly lost the will to live her's. megan Source: Twitter. It all kicked off when Megan, who also plays for the Florida State Seminoles, and her friend, Dallas ...
Solar Systems aims to build the PV project by 2019. The company is currently implementing projects in Samara and Astrakhan Regions. It is also planning to start constructing solar power plants in Volgograd Region, Stavropol Krai and the Republic of Kalmykia and Bashkortostan over the next three years.
Hughes is now the founding CEO of the Economic Security Project, a nonprofit advocating for a guaranteed income in the United States, and he used his recent book "Fair Shot" to finally speak about The New Republic fiasco. He said that it actually taught him a valuable lesson about expectations and risk that he's since ...
Violence in Djugu Territory (Ituri Province), escalated and forced a large number of Congolese to flee to neighboring territories and the city of Bunia, while others crossed Lake Albert by boat to Uganda. Two new UNHCR Field Offices, in Bondo and Monga, were opened to provide better protection and ...
Long ago, the unique relationship between the Edmonton Oilers and the Republic of Finland may have seemed unusual, out of place. The great early NHL success of team and nation (while playing for team) forged a union that remains strong to this day. In hockey terms, another Finn on the roster is ...
Shortly after dawn on a July morning in 2007, a convoy of black FBI utility vehicles snaked down Ridge Road, a tranquil, leafy street lined with modest homes and manicured shrubs in the Maryland suburb of Severn. After a few twists and turns, they came to a stop at the end of a cul-de-sac opposite a ...

Will President Donald Trump and his Republican allies in Congress let special counsel Robert Mueller complete the Russia investigation? That's long been a legitimate, unanswered question in Washington. Over the weekend, the balance of probability leaned toward “no,” as a constitutional crisis looks ...
A 12-year-old Republic boy was injured in a two-vehicle collision at 9:30 a.m. Sunday on Lawrence County Road 2020, about 10 miles south of Lockwood, according to the Missouri State Highway Patrol. Julian Henderson was taken by ambulance to Cox South Hospital in Springfield with moderate injuries.
“We are so excited to finally announce our partnership with the team at ALT:VISION Records and their insanely talented roster of artists," says Kristina Grossmann, senior director of A&R at Republic and Casablanca Records. "Adam and Benito are two of the best in the business right now at identifying and ...
ReBalance: Ae Mak on being the first band chosen for Festival Republic's gender equality program. Ae Mak ... The Irish duo, led by singer Aoife McCann, are the first act chosen for Festival Republic's ReBalanced programme – a new initiative that will address the gender imbalance in the music industry.
Leigh's Lost and Found: Check out the found animals at Republic animal control, do you recognize any of them? Posted: Thu 2:42 PM, Mar 08, ... Republic animal control works every day to reunite lost pets and if an owner doesn't turn up, to get them adopted out into new homes. The responsiblity for doing ...
CANTON Complaints from residents who live near Republic Steel have changed little in the past year. They reported damage to houses and vehicles from dust and dirt, which they suspect is from the Eighth Street NE steel plant, but which has not been confirmed, to Canton City Council last year.
In mid-February a source in the human rights community told me that villages in a remote region of the Democratic Republic of Congo were being burned amid a renewal of communal fighting. People fleeing the violence told aid workers of arson attacks. The clashes between the Hema and Lendu ...
Damos, a News Republic reporter since 2007 and the winner of several Wisconsin Newspaper Association awards for his investigative work, was honored for documenting county leaders' repeated missteps. He exposed the intrigue behind the former administrative coordinator's departure and $135,000 ...
CANTON Complaints from residents who live near Republic Steel have changed little in the past year. They reported damage to houses and vehicles from dust and dirt, which they suspect is from the Eighth Street NE steel plant, but which has not been confirmed, to Canton City Council last year.


 

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