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 Antarctic Treaty System

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS, regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all land and ice shelves south of 60ーS latitude parallel. The treaty has now been signed by 46 countries, including the now-defunct Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and set aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, established freedom of scientific investigation and banned military activity on that continent. This was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War.


The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1, 1959, and officially entered into force on June 23, 1961.[1] The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957-58 and willing to accept a US invitation to the conference at which the treaty was negotiated. These countries were the ones with significant interests in Antarctica at the time: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States. Between them, the signatories had established over 50 Antarctic stations for the IGY. The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific cooperation that had been achieved "on the ice".



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updated Tue. May 1, 2018

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Under the Antarctic Treaty's protocol, there can be no resource development and no nuclear testing. It is a place of peace and science. dbramham@postmedia.com. Twitter: @daphnebramham. Daphne Bramham is travelling as a guest of One Ocean Expeditions, which has neither approved nor reviewedテδづつ...
This role we play, both on the ice through the work of Antarctica NZ, and in Christchurch, makes us a strong and credible voice in an important international forum as new members join the Antarctic Treaty System and it is redefined and tested. Our expertise and commitment to environmental stewardship isテδづつ...

Turkey is set to deploy a large team of scientists to Antarctica, the world's fifth largest continent, to assess the feasibility of establishing a scientific base in order to meet the criteria needed to upgrade its status from non-consultative to consultative party in the Antarctic Treaty. “We want to become aテδづつ...
A relative latecomer there, China acceded to the Antarctic Treaty in 1983 and bases were rapidly set up: Changcheng (1985); Zhongshan (1989); Kunlun (2009); Taishan (2014); and plans for a fifth station next year. Anne-Marie Brady of the University of Canterbury in New Zealand has written extensivelyテδづつ...
Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration officials first announced the new set of rules for behavior in Antarctica in September, after realizing it was one of four countries that had signed the Antarctic Treaty but had not established regulations for its citizens, the South China Morning Post reported. The otherテδづつ...
To mark World Antarctica Day in December, which celebrates the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959,. Year 9 Harrogate Grammar School pupils took part in a question and answer session to mark World Antarctica Day. The youngsters quizzed Peter Convey – an terrestrial ecologist who works with theテδづつ...

Canada signed on to the Antarctic Treaty in 1988. The international accord came into effect in 1961 and guarantees that Antarctica will be open to scientific research, but closed to mineral extraction, nuclear testing and the disposal of radioactive waste. Because Canada has no permanent research stationテδづつ...
The icebreaker Araon has become a milestone in the history of Korea's Antarctica research. Araon can navigate through the sea ice as thick as 1 meter at 30km/h. It was developed in 2003 when then President Roh Moo-hyun ordered to invest 108 billion won to make Korea's first icebreaker. Behind the birth of Araon wasテδづつ...
Nearly 1,000 people call McMurdo their summer home during the southern hemisphere's warmer months. The work done there is the result of the 1959 Antarctic Treaty System, which laid the groundwork for international and interagency cooperation for science and discovery. For nearly 60 years, the Treatyテδづつ...
Uruguay is among the pioneering nations in the Antarctic Treaty, keeping military personnel and scientific staff on the frozen continent year-round to conduct research studies for the benefit of all mankind. The Uruguayan Air Force (FAU, in Spanish) already made its first and second flights for the 2017-2018テδづつ...
Steve Blamires, a native of Scotland who lives in Beacon, is a shipboard historian and expedition leader for National Geographic and Lindblad Expeditions. Beginning Jan. 17, at 7:30 p.m., and continuing every other Wednesday through Feb. 28, he will present a series of talks at Beahive Beacon aboutテδづつ...
The aim of the Antarctic program is to carry forward the nation's goals of meeting obligations under the Antarctic Treaty, fostering cooperative research with other nations and protecting the Antarctic environment. “Since September we have flown 17 (ODF) missions, transported nearly 950,000 pounds ofテδづつ...
The aim of the Antarctic program is to carry forward the nation's goals of meeting obligations under the Antarctic Treaty, fostering cooperative research with other nations, and protecting the Antarctic environment. “Since September we have flown 17 [ODF] missions, transported nearly 950,000 pounds ofテδづつ...
“According to Article IV of the Antarctic Treaty, for a nation to maintain its consultative status with voting power and be able to decide the future of Antarctica, the treaty member nation must carry out quality research in the Antarctic region,” the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology, Innovation, andテδづつ...
The long-standing Antarctic Treaty and related agreements signed by various countries require consultative parties to make their own laws in an effort to better engage in protection of the area," Dong Yue, a research fellow at the Polar Research Institute of the Ocean University of China, told the Globalテδづつ...
The Antarctic treaty ensures that Antarctica is used only for peaceful purposes, and that there is freedom of scientific investigation. Against the backdrop of today's climate change and global conflict, it can seem astonishing that the treaty has not only survived for almost 60 years, but also continues to gatherテδづつ...
China will for the first time host a meeting of the group overseeing management of the Antarctic at a time when Beijing is seeking to bolster its presence in both polar regions. Some 400 delegates, from more than 40 countries and international organisations, will attend the annual meeting of the Antarcticテδづつ...

Last May, at the 40th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting, the Chinese government reiterated its commitment to peaceful development and research of Antarctica. Observers say the new guideline is necessary and proves that Beijing is serious about protecting the environment of Antarctica and promotingテδづつ...
Chinese Arctic and Antarctic Administration officials first announced the new set of rules for behaviour in Antarctica in September, after realising it was one of four countries that had signed the Antarctic Treaty but had not established regulations for its citizens, the South China Morning Post reported.
This is technically up to the standards of the Antarctic Treaty, but Australia conducted an environmental assessment in 2010 to make sure itテδづつ...
While that disposal method met Antarctic Treaty environmental protocols, an environmental impact assessment revealed the effluent wasテδづつ...
We're basically kept in the middle and that's due to the Antarctic Treaty. In our model, uh not everybody agrees with this, but in our model we'reテδづつ...
Because this claim to the EEZ came after the Antarctic treaty, some countries have chosen to ignore it (e.g., Japan). Antarctic analysts areテδづつ...
... of its military's activities in Antarctica as well as defence use of some of its scientific projects there, which is a breach of the Antarctic Treaty.
Their adherence to the Antarctic Treaty which includes a zero-impact policy means that all waste will be transported off the continent, their campテδづつ...
Dr Manfred Reinke winds up an eight-year two-term stint as Executive Secretary of the Antarctic Treaty next month. While Argentina's Antarcticテδづつ...
And lastly, under the Antarctic Treaty, which country is responsible for the Larsen ice shelf, its disintegration and international consequences?
MINSK, 19 July (BelTA) – Belarus intends to get the status of a consultative party to the Antarctic Treaty, BelTA learned from Aleksei Gaidashov,テδづつ...
Fortunately, Antarctica remains protected by the Antarctic Treaty and is not threatened by factors such as natural-resource exploration. Signedテδづつ...
As a late-comer to the Antarctic Treaty System, China is now more and ... Antarctic Specially Managed Areas (ASMA) in the Antarctic Treatyテδづつ...
Some 400 delegates, from more than 40 countries and international organisations, will attend the annual meeting of the Antarctic Treaty, whichテδづつ...
For the first time, China will hold the 40th Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and 20th Committee for environmental Protectionテδづつ...
The Madrid Protocol, which is also known as the Antarctic Environmental Control, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System. The agreementテδづつ...
''If you do intend to use them in the Antarctic Treaty area then this activity must be subject to the same assessment as the rest of your seasonテδづつ...
In the context of the Antarctic, China's long-term interest in the region may be motivated by the fact that the 1998 Antarctic Treaty will be up forテδづつ...
However, the fact that the mechanisms and knowledge are already in place within the ATCM provides much encouragement for the future, and indeed given the will and engagement now from Antarctic Treaty Parties, there is nothing to stop immediate andテδづつ...
Although they were signatories to the Antarctic Treaty System, Russia and the United States reserved the right to claim territory at a future date.
The seat of Chile's Antarctic Institute is located in Punta Arenas and most country members of the Antarctic Treaty have their logistic vessels operate and load provisions at the local terminal.
... minister Susana Malcorra has announced that Argentina has definitive international support for its defined continental shelf limits, with the exception of the Falklands/Malvinas, South Georgia, in dispute with the UK, and those covered by the ...
And Melanie Bergmann adds: "While compiling Litterbase, I discovered a cache of old data on litter in the Antarctic, which the signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty gathered on a regular basis. In addition, the ingestion of microplastic at the ...
Bergmann says: "While compiling Litterbase, I discovered a cache of old data on litter in the Antarctic, which the signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty gathered on a regular basis. In addition, the ingestion of microplastic at the beginning of ...
We learned about the Antarctic Treaty of 1959, with its dozen charter signatory nations supporting peaceful scientific study.
It gained global acceptance with India's signing of the Antarctic Treaty and subsequent construction of the Dakshin Gangotri Antarctic research base in 1983.
Why, for example, did British Antarctic explorer Ernest Shackleton proceed with his polar expedition despite the outbreak of the First World War.
And once they found it they sealed off Antarctica forever and that's that it's one of the greatest secrets that bit nobody no look look look up the Antarctic treaty you know not hidden documents away. And protect mark what what did you signed. If on ...
I can't believe I'm typing these words in 2017 and not 1017, but Flat Earth hypotheses have been all the rage in sports recently.
The Indian Antarctic program is bound by the rules of the Antarctic Treaty System,which India signed in 1983. This year, in the 36th Indian scientific expedition, two teams from ISRO (one from Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad with two membersテδづつ...
He said that he felt that their research was making a difference. He pointed to a recent announcement by the signatory countries to the Antarctic Treaty declaring a large part of the Ross Sea a marine protected region in order to safeguard the ...
The great biodiversity of this part of the world was the reason why the signers of the Antarctic Treaty declared it to be a specially protected zone with restrictions on tourism.
While the Antarctic Treaty that governs visitors mandates that humans not approach penguins, it doesn't keep the animals from approaching humans.


 

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