I. Meeting at home of Maggie and Bill Eckhardt, Saturday, December 11, 1965.
Maggie suggested to students at Drake that they could meet at her house, when several talked to her about further effort in the Des Moines area in support of the effort to end the war in Viet Nam. Word was spread to studenta at Iowa State, Grinnell. Students from all these campuses were present. Also present were several adults, including Glenna Johnson, member of local Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, and on the national board of W.I.L., Herbert Hoover, Oscaloosa, organizer of the bus trip to the Washingon Rally, March; and Convention of the N.C.C., Novembedr 24-27; John Isom, minister of the Unitarian Church, Des Moines, Mr. Palugren, Bill Eckhardt, Bruce Clark, member of Liberal Religious Youth (Unitarian Church), high school senior at Roosevelt High School, Des Moines; Lorena Jeanne Tinker. The rest of the group (35-40) were students from the three campuses.
Herbert Hoover suggested some kind of witness during the holiday season -- fast, or arm bands. Students decided finally on several activities: (1) to wear black arm bands as symbol of mourning for all dead in Viet Nam and to urge acceptance of a Christmas Eve truce, preferably open ended, as suggested by Bob Kennedy; (2) to have day long fast, (a) Thrusday, December 16; (b) Dec. 31 (if war not ended by then). The band wearing would commence Thursday, Dec. 16. The Grinnell students were not sure that much could be accomplished on the Grinnell campus by Dec. 16 because final exams are being held. The Iowa State students were to be contaqcted, other campuses if possible in Iowa. Word was to be sent to the N.C.C. about plan, hoping for national effort. A press conference was called for 8:00 p.m. Dec. 11 at Friends' House.
The press conference was held. T.V. coverage was given at the 10:00 p.m. news spot Sat., Dec. 11 and a small item was in the Des Moines Sunday Register.
II. Meeting at Eckhardt's home, Sunday, Dec. 12, 1965, of high school Liberal Religious Youth.
These meetings are held weekly at different parents' homes of the high school members of the group. By coincidence, the meeting for this evening was planned at the Eckhardt's. Chris Eckhardt, their son, is a sophomore at Roosevelt High School, Des Moines. Bruce Clark reported on the college students' meeting the day before. The group did not take collective action, but decided each member could decide for himself if he wanted to join in the college students' plan. (The college students had stated that they welcomed any concerned American to join them.)
III. Several of these students decided they would do this, and contact some of their friends in schools other than Roosevelt who might be interested.
Lorena Jeanne Tinker announced at Des Moines Valley Friends' Meeting, Sunday, December 12, the decision of the college students', adding that any concerned Americans were welcome to join them.
IV. Tuesday, Dec. 14, Perry Hutchinson, high school junior at Lincoln High School, Des Moines, wore a black arm band.
His parents were not aware he had worn it until two days later. When they questioned him, he reported that almost no attention had been paid to the band on the part of either faculty or students.
V. Tuesday evening, Dec. 14, Bruce Clark and Ross Peterson, both members of L.R.Y. and Roosevelt High School students, came to visit John Tinker at his home, and report their decision to wear the bands on Thurdday and fast for the day.
Both Leonard and Lorena Jeanne Tinker were present. Ross explained that they had a problem. He had written an editorial for the Roosevelt High School paper that day about the plan for arm bands, and was told by faculty he needed administrqation approval for it. The Des Moines School Administration through Dr. Peterson, director of Secondary Education, referred it to a meeting of himself and the five high school principals, evidently in a planned meeting Tuesday afternoon. (The five principals and Dr. Peterson unanimously voted to not allow the wearing of the bands, although this was not known to Ross and Bruce when they called on John Tinker) Roosevelt High School principal, Mr. Rawley, talked sympathetically to the students on Tuesday afternoon, said they had agreed to take the matter under discussion and would report back to them sometime Wednesday. Bruce and Ross both stated they had faith in Mr. Rawley and the School Administration, and would not attempt to publicize their activity until word from Mr. Rawley and/or the Administration was received. They said that Mr. Rawley said the School Board had a long policy which prohibited anything which "disturbed the peace" or proved a "distracting influence" on education within the Des Moines Schools.
VI. Wednesday, Dec. 15, a front-page article appeared in the Des Moines Register (morning paper), announcing the decision of the Des Moines' School Administration and five high school principals to ban the wearing of the arm bands on Thrusday, Dec. 16. No word of this decision had been given to Ross and/or Bruce before the written statement in the newspaper.
VII. Thursday December 16, 7:30 p.m., Friends' House, today a meeting of students who wore or who planned to wear the arm bands later, parents of these students who would attend, Craig Sawyer, assistant professor in Law, Drake University, was held. Requests by press to attend the meeting were denied by the group. Instead, a written statement, consensus of group thought, was prepared by Mr. Sawyer and read over the telephone to Jack Magarell, Des Moines REgister reporter, after the meeting. (During the course of the meeting, a Mr. Martin, writer for Curtis Publishing Company, came, and was allowed to remain, on his promise he would not give information to either of the wire services or the local reporters. He said he was writing a general article for the Saturday Evenign Post on the Peace Movement in America, which would not be released for about six weeks.) Following is a transcript of notes taken by Lorena J. Tinker of this meeting:
Present: Craig Sawyer, Maggie and Bill Eckhardt, Mrs. Singer, Mr. Berry, Mr. Naddis, Mr. and Mrs. Frank Clark, Leonard and Lorena Jeanne Tinker; Ross Peterson, Bruce Clark, Chris Eckhardt, Emily Maddis, Chris Singer, John Tinker, Mary Beth Tinker, Phil Keho.
Mr. Sawyer asked for information on arm band action. Students said some high school students had decided to cooperate with college students' fast and wearing of arm bands -- mostly studenta at Roosevelt, who belonged to Liberal Religious Youth. (see V for additional information included in this summary)
Chris Eckhardt reported that he had worn a band today, and was suspended by the vice-principal, Mr. Blackman, when he refused to remove his arm band, at Roosevelt High School. Mary Beth Tinker, 13, eigth grade student at Harding Junior High School, reported that she had been suspended to the girls' advisor, Mrs. Tarman. She had attended four classes, had been allowed to continue through lunch hour, but her math teacher, had sent her to the office by issuing a pass to her without a word. In the office, when asked to remove her arm band, she had. Then Mrs. Tarman talked with her, told her she would have to suspend her. She told her she respected her ideas, but had to suspend her because School Board had had a meeting and had decided that anyone who wore an arm band had to be suspended because, probably, if a lot of smart-alecky kids wore them, just to show off, it would lose its meaning.
Someone (?) reported that Perry Hutchinson wore a band on Tuesday, but with little attention given to it.
Mr. Berry, father of Joe Berry, Roosevelt student president, and a gym teacher at Lincoln High School, said a faculty meeting there discussed the arm bands, and decided that on Wednesday, Linoln would ask the teachers to announce that bands could not be worn on Thursday, Dec. 16.
Bruce Clark reported that one Roosevelt gym teacher and football coach, Mr. Prior, announced this ban during 5th and 6th periods Wednesday, Dec. 16. mr. Prior also said that instead of the regular pep yell, they would yell, :Beat the Viet Cong:. He added that students could look around and if they saw any students not giving the yell, then the other students could do what they wanted to with those who did not yell -- he said he would turn his back and not watch. Chris Eckhardt said Mr. Prior had continued this proatice in classes today. He also demanded in one class to know "if any Viet Nam rat finks" were present. He also pointed to several students in a class yesterday and labeled them as :pinkos: in front of the other students.
Phil Keho said Mr. Prior had asked if there were any Communists in his class, and then pointed to Phil. He then said that he had 490 red-blooded Americans in his classes, and perhaps that one would straighten out. He then added, "Get that, Keho?' This had resulted in comments from several students.
Mr. Sawyer asked if any person present had had previous experience with policy that badges, bands, etc. were banned? Joe Berry said that they had been aware of a charge that some things were considered "disruptive" but that in the previous year, black arm bands had been worn to "morn the death of school spirit at Roosevelt". Also political pins had been worn before the national election. (L.J. -- also black bands to mourn death of Birmingham children)
There was a report that the students, except for Chris and Mary Beth, had decided not to wear bands on this (Thursday) to school, but instead to wear black clothing, and to circulate a petition to the School Board asking for freedom to wear symbols of a student's belief, such as arm bands, crosses, political pins, etc. Mr. Maddus said that he would think the petition wshould be expanded to request that teachers in the system, and school administrators be admonished not to disturb the peace themselves. He said that we do have a case here of a football coach inciting students; and of Dr. Peterson, school administrator, inciting students through the public announcement of the ban.
Mr. Sawyer, "I'm amazed that a school with the reputation for sophistication which Roosevelt has, allows such stuff to go on". (referring to Mr. Prior's actions)
Joe Berry added that last year Mr. Prior had told students if they caught somebody stealing from their lockers, they could push him into a corner and bash their heads in. Chris Eckhardt said Mr. Prior had said this in the present year also.
Mr. Sawyer said that the decision was made probably because the school people felt that the reason for the arm bands centered on attitude toward American policy in Viet Nam, and that since this is not discussed calmly, the real reason for the ban is emotional attitude toward protest toward the war; but that he doubted if one person could be found who would admit making the decision which the school had announced publicly. He said that the issue was whether or not students had the right to wear the arm bands. "Frankly, I think you could lick this in a courtroom. But I certainly wouldn't advise anyone to get into this."
Joe Berry said that many teachers at Roosevelt made this issue the topic for discussion today rather than the regular lesson.
(Mr. Martin, Sat. Eve. Post, was permitted to come into meeting at this point)
Sherry Hutchinson, mother of Perry, who had worn band at Lincoln, Tuesday, had joined group in meantime. She said that she had felt like calling several of the School Board members because she felt it peculiar that the School Administration should be making policy, and she did not believe that they had the right to speak out on school policy.
Ross Peterson, "Mr. Niffennegger (chairman of School Board) said he did not feel that School Board should be bothered by this sort of thing. He tried to get across to us (Bruce and Ross) that this matter was not that important! (Bruce and Ross had talked with him, and asked if he would call a special meeting of the School Board to discuss this matter)
Bruce Clark, "We told them we hoped the School Board would have a special meeting since they did not meet regularly again until next Tuesday, and since our wearing of the bands was supposed to occur before the Christmas holidays (school is out after Dec. 22). Dr. Peterson refused to ask for such a meeting (also)."
Ross Peterson, "He said it was related to a policy, that anything disruptive to the educational influence within or without the school room is not allowed. He said the index of their school policies is so complicated that he could not find it in the school board's files at the time we talked with him. I accepted this in good faith. If it isn't written law, then it is common law within the school system.
Mr. Berry, addressing Chris Eckhardt, "You were definitely aware the administration had set this rule when you wore the band this morning?"
Mr. Berry, "I have a lot of the same problems (inteaching and working with students which Mr. Prior has. Perhaps he didn't mean them (the things he did [said]) as seriously as they sound. Perhaps their effect was not as bad as it sounds either. I don't think he really believes you are a Communist, Keho. I just don't think he's as vicious as he sounds.
Joe berry, "But he said, 'You're the guys who think the Viet Cong are peasants', as he pointed to Bruce and me. Then he made comments to the class as a whole about Un-Americanism. He added 'Guys like you shouldn't be allowed -- should be dead.'. This scared the heck out of me. I believe this guy is deadly serious!"
Maggie Eckhardt, "Last year I heard many reports of Mr. Pryor. He would tell the kids to get their hair cut if it were long. It was reported he said he'd turn huge football player[s] on the student if he [the student] didn't obey.
Ross Peterson, " In my gum class, Mr. Comito said everything in a light vein. Mr. Prior does this too. But when he said "Beat the Viet Cong" should be yelled, he asked Ross what he thought, and Ross said that others could yell it but he woulen't.
Sawyer, "Are just blank arm bands banned?"
Bruce Clark, "No -- all arm bands.
Ross Peterson, "This regulation isn't against arm bands -- but because they are within the school realm. But they aren't a distraction to me.
Leonard Tinker, "At this point, we need to come to some sense of what we will do next."
Mrs Singer, "Why did Dr. Peterson feel called upon to get excited about these kids? Why was he compelled to do this?
Leonard Tinker, "In the fourth grade, Mary Beth made a speech "Is Peace Possible" -- at least she wrote it. But before she gave it, the teacher felt if was too controversial a topic, so referred it to the principal, who then referred it to the Superentendent of School's office, and Dr. Peterson decided she couldn't make it, because it was too controversial. She spoke on "Hiroshima" instead!"
Lorena Jeanne Tinker, "Edward (eldest son, now 19) had a similar experience, wanting to use the questionaire on foreign policy of the Des Moines Peace Research Group, for Science Fair Project. Dean Stroud, head of the Science Fair, had approved Edward's project. But Dr. Denny, principal at North, said it was too controversial, so refused to allow it. Dean Stroud said this was first time in history of Hawkeye Science Fair that a project they ahd approved had been forbidded in a local school. Dr. Mitchum (head of Program, School Administration, Des Moines) told Leonard that they never allowed discussions of race of peace outside specific mention in the curriculum because both topics were considered controversial.
Frank Clark, "I would like to believe Dr. Peterson's decision (in regard to arm bands) was made with integrity.
Leonard Tinker, "We really do need to come to some decision. When the Eckhardt's go to school tomorrow, what will happen? When I go with Mary Beth, will she be admitted or dismissed? Will she decide to keep on the arm band?"
Maggie Eckhardt, "One of the questions I have: Chris wants to go back to Roosevelt (with an arm band). I worry -- will he get beaten?"
Mrs Frank Clark, "Two got attacked today, when they went to the Pizza House (off Roosevelt campus).
Ross Peterson, "I got hit in the mouth (resulted in bleeding) by a non-student who was expelled last year but who will apply to go back to school next semester. Bruce was attacked by a Roosevelt student."
But Ross emphasized they did not want to press charges, because they both believed in using non-violence and to press charges now would represent violence.
Craig Sawyer, "I have no personal interest, but rather an abiding legal interest in your right to wear the damn arm band if you want to. I know that as a teacher I would feel free in my school to let students do it -- and to allow discussion about it."
He listed several possible alternatives: (for Tinkers)
1. To say nothing, let matter pass
2. If she keeps wearing it, she will be kept out, and could then take court action. This might not be suitable -- will seriously affect her school and yours.
3. Should realize I don't think the School Board is in a position to close their eyes to this problem. If the petition is suitably presented, gets newspaper coverage, the School Board would decide they need to do something. So, to wait now until School Board has opportunity to meet, and abide by decision -- this is not compromise.
Lorena Jeanne Tinker, "I don't think the School Board will be willing to differ with the School Administration."
Craig Sawyer, "But they should be given the right to decide.
Leonard Tinker, "But time is of the essence. The plea students are making is for a truce at Christmas. The Board does not meet until next Tuesday. The kids will get out Wednesday for the holidays. Shall we continue to let kids go with bands, and let the schools exercise their power until the School Board meeting, or what?"
Bruce Clark, "Some feel there is a need for a special school board meeting in the meantime."
Mr. Maddus, "The issue is a very important one -- what the students do is their own personal decision. The issue is the school's creating an atmosphere. We have no leg to stand on if we argue that the Administration can't say that arm bands can't be worn. But the way Mr. Peterson announced in the papers the ban, and the way the coaches acted practically wanting the other students to attack -- this is the real issue."
Bruce Clark, "We are not challenging their right to make such decisions. But in this case, if students are told they can't do this, then they are establishing a precedent."
Frank Miller, (referring to Steve Smigh and other draft card burners, "They have the right to burn their draft card -- but then they have to accept their punishment."
Craig Sawyer, "This is not the present issue, whether or not they have the right to violate statute. Most people are willing to abide by laws. Non-violent protests against unjust laws have been effective in the South; have really become a religion.
"The only way to test this issue is to take it to court."
Mr. Berry, "Faculty members feel about this group of students -- about the ones who demonstrate and gain publicity by this method -- that they are eccentric and just try to gain publicity." (he emphasized that this was not his own viewpoint, but that of other faculty members). He said that faculty members think a student who demonstrates is trying to single himself out.
Leonard Tinker, "This is damning for the faculty.
Frank Clark, "This should not be tolerated by citizens of their teachers."
Craig Sawyer, "I don't think the School Board has any right to say this is disrupting anything. You have a right to say it. I don't suggest you go out with hatchets, stones, etc. But we do have a democratic process, and we have to use it."
Mr. Maddus, "This group deplores the school administration taking the issue into publicity. Can we say this? Can we say that we stand with our kids, respect their values, feel responsible for them and their stand? They have been taught freedom of expression in their homes and schools."
The group decided that a statement should be made to the press, written by Mr. Sawyer on basis of consensus of the group. (this was later turned in to Jack Magarell of the Des Moines Register). One item was to urge special Board Meeting before Monday.
Craig Sawyer said there will be no cost legally, in asnwer to L. Tinker's Question about raising money.
Craig Sawyer said he did not feel strongly about the war himself -- did not feel had to protest it; but he does feel strongly that people who so feel should be protected and allowed to protest. He said he would feel it was immoral taking money for his work. He added that he would like us to respect his personal feelings. He added, "I think this is horrible -- the School Board is getting away with murder!"
VIII. Friday morning, December 17. Story appeared on front page of Des Moines Register.
Text of last night's group statement to Magarell did not appear. A few sentences were used from it, but mostly article told of students' dismissal yesterday, responses from Peterson and Niffennegger. (an article was in last night's Tribune also about students' dismissal).
At 8:40 a.m. Leonard and Lorena Jeanne Tinker went to Harding Junior High to talk with Mary Beth's advisor, Mrs. Tarman. Mary Beth stayed home. She said she would wear her band if she went back, and both parents agreed she should not face the humiliation of being sent home again.
Mrs Tarman had called Lorena Jeanne yesterday about 1:15, after suspending Mary Beth. She explained that she was only following orders. She said she had had Quaker relatives, listed them, said she had told Mary Beth she admired her for standing up for her convictions and witnessing to them. She said that because Mary Beth was such a good citizen in the school, and had never shown any sign of irresponsible behavior, she was convinced of her sincerity, and had decided, with Mr. Pratt (principal), that Mary Beth should not be punished for her witness. So she was suspending Mary Beth to herself [Mrs. Tarnam], rather than to the downtown School Administration; and because of her last nights prayers, had decided not to give her accumulated detentions for absences. She indicated her own distress with the situation. Leonard expressed the Tinkers' position as parents: that we would keep Mary Beth out of school until there was a change in school policy. He raised the problem of professional people who followed orders rather than their own convictions. She explained that she had a sick relative and husband and two children to support, and had to keep her job. L.J. mentioned that the Nazi, Eichmann, had said he was only following orders. She said she was aware of this problem. Throughout, she evidenced distress over her own role in the situation, and kept reiterating her own faith in Mary Beth, and desire not to punish her. L.J. reminded her that keeping Mary Beth out of school was in itself a punishment, and she agreed.
Various news representatives called when the Tinkers got home, taped phone interviews for radio, took statements for the A.P., U.P., local papers, brought T.V. equipment into their home (WOI, Ames; WHO, Des Moines). Mr. Martin, of Sat. Eve. Post, interviewed Lorena Jeanne Tinker at 11 with tape, on wider effort of peace people in Iowa. Bill and Maggie Eckhardt come for lunch, and were joined by Leonard Tinker, Edward, John (suspended at North High School about 11:30 a.m.) Mary Beth, Paul. Mr. Martin taped the Eckhardts, Edward, John. He asked Edward if he were a conscientious objector. Edward told him he opposed the Viet Nam war, but did not consider himself a conscientious objector. Mr. Martin then asked, "What do you plan to do after college?"
"I'm not sure. Have thought some of joining the Air Force."
Mr. Martin, turning to Lorena Jeanne, "Doesn't this disturb you -- having a son with this attitude when you and your husband are pacifists?"
We have tried to raise our children so they make their own decisions. We have tried to give them freedom to do this. Actually, I think that Edward's interest in the Air Force might relate to his love of flying -- he is working toward a pilot's license -- and it helps irritate parents!"
Edward grinned as he left the room after the interview, and told her what she said was o.k.
WOI and WHO T.V. reporters and cameramen came about 2:30. They interviewed John Tinker. When asked why he wore the band, he answered that he did it to begin with because he wanted to mourn the dead in the war, to urge for a truce. However, he felt it had now become a matter of principle -- the principle of freedom of expression. Lorena Jeanne said that although the wearing of the bands by the children had been their decision that as parents we supported them because we felt responsible for the values they expressed. She also said that we are keeping the children out of school until there is a change in the policy.
IX. Saturday, Dec. 18.
Lorena Jeanne Tinker called Bob Keck, Methodist pastor on the south side of Des Moines, and member of the School Board. She told him he was the only one she knew on the Board to call, and asked him if he knew what the situation was. He replied that he felt the publicity was all unfortunate, and that we should not have given any news for the press. She explained that the students and parents had not initiated press releases -- rather, that the story released by Dr. Peterson in Wed. morning's Register announcing the ban had resulted in the events which had mushroomed, even into national attention to the ban. She asked if he or the other shcool board members knew that the chairman had said it was too trivial a matter to bother the board with. He had not known this. He said he would try to talk with some people, would let her know of any further development. He called late in the afternoon. He said he had had an appointment with Dr. Dwight Davis, school superintendent. Dr. Davis had indicated that the ban was made by Dr. Peterson and the 5 high school principals, and that he and Dr. Mitchum had not been consulted. He also indicated that he did not think it necessary for Board to act. Rather, that the Administration itself could, if it wanted to, change its mind about it. Also, that there is not any written policy of the School Board about "disruption of the educational process: which could be applied to this issue, as Dr. Peterson had stated there was. Bob Keck sounded very concerned, and very gracious in the discussion, indicated he himself did not believe ban should be continued but that it was matter for the Administration, not the Board.
Sherry Hutchinson called Lorena Jeanne to say she had talked with several board members, including Bob Keck, Art Davis, who seemed sympathetic. Edna Taylor called to say she had called Mr. Niffenegger, who had become quite angry, would not discuss it with her.
X. Sunday, Dec. 19 Editorial in Sunday Register against ban, but questioning why no attempt to negotiate was made by parents or students (this attempt was not covered in press to date. Jack Magarell has not reported it adequately in his stories.)
Tinkers went to Friend's Meeting, except for Leonard, who was working. Cecil Hinshaw asked Lorena Jeanne to report to Meeting on what the present situation in regard to the bands was. She had not planned to mention it in the Meeting, but summarized it briefly. Both Elizabeth Lamb and Larry Hutchison appeared very upset by the action. Elizabeth later talked to Lorena Jeanne in corridor -- felt action was alienating people from considering peace, was causing emotions to arise, which were negative, and that certainly the students should not have worn bands until after the School Board meeting. She felt energy should have been used to get open assemblies to discuss both sides of the war. L.J. assured her we would want this too, but did not think such result very likely. She asked L.J what was the difference between herself and Herbert Hoover -- that both were not facing reality, were alienating any hope for support from other people. Margie Parris came by, commented that she felt Meeting should have publicly stated support for the children, not argued about the wisdom of their action.
X. Saturday evening, Dec. 18.
Word came through Craig Sawyer that the Iowa Civil Liberties Union had had special meeting Sat. afternoon, and voted to support the students, into legal action if necessary. About 8:30, Edna Grivffin called Lorena Jeanne and told her this had happened, but implied it was done with understanding that students would not continue to wear band on Monday, that that would put I.C.L.U. in harder position. She wanted L.J. to talk students out of continuing bands, at least until after the School Board meeting Tuesday. She argued that if a lot of students had been involved, they could have power and it would make sense; but since only a few, they would be personally "destroyed" by continuing. L.J. said she couldn't talk them out of it, but if Edna wanted to call and tell others her ideas, that would be allright.
Leonard Tinker called Mrs. Noun, chairman of I.C.L.U. The Board had put no qualification to their support. Edna did get a meeting of some of the parents and students at the Eckhardt's. Maggie and Bill were not home, but Chris was. She tried to persuade them not to continue the demonstration. Leonard called Chris and told him that I.C.L.U. had not limited the students in this way.
XII. A rally was planned for Friends' House, Sunday evening, Dec. 19, by S.D.S. students from Drake and Iowa State. Gregg Calvert had phoned L.J. Sat. to say that nationally, S.D.S. had phoned him to say D.D.S. would support students, urged Iowa State to do so too. Also invited were the high school students, parents, and W.I.L. members. Present: S.D.S. students from Ames, Drake, Grinnell, Iowa City (1 each from latter two schools, most from first two schools); W.I.L members, parents, high school students who wore bands or are sympathetic with those who did, and Craig Sawyer, I.C.L.U. lawyer.
When Tinkers arrived (about 8:30 p.m.), Sandy ____, Roosevelt student who circulated petition for students requesting right to wear symbols of belief, told that Mr. Rawley, principal at Roosevelt, had taken away her petition. She said there was a hint of suspension if she would not have given it up. Bruce Clark had called the principal on Saturday. Rawley said he would give it back but she was not to circulate it again -- and also not to publicize he'd returned it. He still has it.
Sandy said she had asked that it be burned when first taken from her because some faculty member had said the names of all who signed it would be turned in to the downtown School Administration office to be blacklisted. (Dean Stonocker had told this to L.J. over the phone too).
Mrs. Singer, mother of Christine Singer, one of the suspended arm band Roosevelt students, asked, "Isn't it true that Mr. Prior, gym teacher at Roosevelt, acts rough on other subjects besides the Viet Nam issue?"